Центры и периферия в странах Балтии и регионах Северо-Запада России: динамика населения в 2000-е годы
The article analyzes population changes in the Russian north-west regions (former North-Western economic zone and Kaliningrad region) and the Baltics at the level of administrative-territorial entity, urban and municipal districts. The method of advancing age allows evaluating interstate and interregional migration. This method is used infrequently, but still it helps to study changes in distribution of a particular group of population rather precisely than current statistics. The article uses the last two census data (2000s and 2010s) - population size, age and gender composition. In order to demonstrate core and periphery relationship the author subdivided the studied administrative-territorial entities into central ones and the rest entities were grouped on the basis of remoteness from the center. The analysis shows that in the studied countries and regions population concentrates in the capitals and adjacent districts, the periphery loses population with high rate. The youth centripetal movement is especially strong; it influences the population structure changes in the core and periphery territories as it deteriorate depopulation and aging processes.
The paper is based on materials from two projects carried out by the Center for Migration Studies (CMS, Moscow), which have been realized with support from the UN Women: “Opportunities and Problems of Social Integration of Labor Migrants from Central Asian Countries in Russia” (the sample size is 400 respondents; the query regions are Moscow and St. Petersburg) and “Migrant Women from CIS Coun tries in Russia” (the sample size is 1169 respondents; the query regions are Moscow and Moscow oblast, Samara oblast, St. Petersburg and Leningrad oblast, and Krasnodar krai). The materials of two focus groups with migrant women from Central Asia in Russia, which were organized in 2010, have also been used.
This short abstract present the cohort research on youth migration in Russia. The research is based on Census data. Method of shifting ages is used.
As long as migration involves mainly young people, their relocation to the big cities has the strongest impact on sex-age structures both in core and peripheral areas. That’s why we are focusing our biggest part of attention on this particular age group in this paper. Unfortunately, Russian migration statistics is quite unreliable. It has failed to record “student age” movement in the last decades. So we consider the best way to fill this gap is to use the Census data. In this paper we used the so called “method of shifting ages”. The core idea is to compare cohorts in adjacent census years taking mortality into account. The discrepancy would stand for migration. The curtail advantage of this method is that, having appropriate data, we can evaluate migration losses and gains at any administrative level. Our data allows us to study intraregional population dynamics. As mortality is insignificant in youth cohorts, we are mostly dealing with migration. Our estimates show that during the last intercensus period (2002-2010) up to 70 percent of youth cohorts have left regional periphery for good after graduating school. For comparison, previous intercensus period (1989-2002) has shown only 40 percent decrease in periphery’s youth cohorts. At the end of the research author’s method of estimating the trend in regional center’s migration attractiveness for the youths is presented.
We study Krugman's core–periphery (CP) model for most general cases of nonidentical regions and fully characterize instant and long-run equilibria. Assuming immobility of labor, we describe the behavior of equilibrium wages/real wages. Moreover, the relative wages/real wages of industrial workers can both increase and decrease with the population with which they are associated. Under the assumption of industrial labor mobility, possible patterns of economic evolution, as responses to trade freeness, are fully described. We show that in the case of noticeable agricultural asymmetry, all mobile labor inevitably accumulates in countries with larger agricultural populations.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.