Auditory ERP Differences in the Perception of Anticipated Speech Sequences in 5 - 6 Years Old Children and Adults
The perception of complex auditory information such as complete speech sequences develops during human ontogeny. In order to explore age differences in the auditory perception of predictable speech sequences we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in 5- to 6-yearold children (N = 15) and adults (N = 15) in response to anticipated speech sequences as successive and reverse digital series with randomly omitted digits. The ERPs obtained from the omitted digits significantly differed in the amplitude and latency of the N200 and P300 components between adults and children, the N400 and LPC components were more pronounced in children in the right frontal area for the digits presentation. These findings indicate that the perception of a successive speech structure is less automated in children and requires a detailed analysis of the successive structure and error detection. These differences in auditory ERPs reflect developmental changes in the auditory perception of speech sequences and can serve as indicators of the maturity of cognitive functions in children.
The current paper considers the lexico-semantical type of performative verbs and performative utterances. The definition of performative verb and its characteristics are given in the paper. The author also regards the use of performative and conditions when the phenomenon of performativity occurs. Different approaches to taxonomy of performative utterances based on illocutary force are described.
We investigated effects of crosslinguistic phonological and semantic similarity on the bilingual lexicon of late unbalanced bilinguals. Our masked priming paradigm used L1 (Russian) words as masked primes and L2 (English) words as targets. The primes and the targets either overlapped – phonologically, semantically, both phonologically and semantically – or did not overlap. Participants maintained the targets in memory and matched them against occasionally presented catch stimuli. N170 and N400 components of the word-elicited high-density ERPs were identified and analysed in signal and source space. Crosslinguistic semantic similarity shortened the reaction times. The semantics-related N400 amplitude difference correlated with individual L2 proficiency, while phonological similarity suppressed the N400 amplitude in the semantically unrelated condition. ERP source analysis suggests that these ERP dynamics are underpinned by cortical generators in the left IFG and the temporal pole. We conclude that the semantic and phonological interplay between L1 and L2 suggest an integrated bilingual lexicon.
The Fourth Saint Petersburg Winter Workshop on Experimental Studies of Speech and Language (Night Whites 2018)
Contemporary philosophy of language studies a broad range of questions connected with the functioning of language in the environment. There can be singled out three paradigms of language existence: speech, written language, and digital language. Diachronically language appeared and initially existed in the form of speech. The paper regards speech as a biological ability of social adaptation in language environment having an orienting function. With the advent of writing, people entered into a textual environment. Written language is an artifact, a part and parcel of our life. Nowadays, we witness a new era of digital language and virtual environment. Digital language is seen to be interactive, dialogical, iconic, being a hybrid of written and oral types of languages. A digital/electronic text is simiotically charged with icons, types of fonts, color, position, pictures and videos. The paper presents a discourse analysis triggered by the creolized text post on Facebook. Semiotically speaking, a creolized text forms a unity of verbal and non-verbal constituents which afford an observer to be part of it and interpret it. In case of Facebook posting, discourse is distributed and expanded because many people can see or take part in it. The example brought in the paper shows that the discourse unfolding on the timeline is not necessarily linear because it can spread in branches or shorter discourses. A post can encourage Facebook users to expand it into a discourse or even many discourses. Commenters use colloquial language, emotionally charged with emoji (smiles), morphological, lexical, and semantic means.
51st Academy of Aphasia Proceedings
The article describes the correlation of language and speech. Language and speech are related, but they are not identical; each of them occupies its niche in human consciousness. The language system is a verbose concept, which is derived from the process of speaking and understanding. Language reveals itself in individual speech and only represents he world, and not objectively. Language functions in speech, because in language communication a speaker uses permanent samples, cliches, standards that helps to form language environment for him.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.