Основные модели трансформации национального государства в перспективе установления глобального порядка
The paper critically examines three projects which are proposed as an alternative of the transforming nation-state. Transnational states of U. Beck, cosmopolitan democracy of D. Held and post-national constellation of J. Habermas. Transnational states, according to U. Beck, are powerful states, whose political power grows out of the cooperative responses to the globalization. Nation-states are united under transnational state in response to the globalization and their regional sovereignty are developing outside their borders. At the center of the cosmopolitan project of D. Held is an individual. Between individuals, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations should be direct relationship. J. Habermas puts a structure of multilevel system, which would defend human rights at supranational level (within the appropriately reformed UN), and would solve the problems of world domestic policy with the help of a compromise between the interests of world powers — at the transnational level (through ongoing conferences and negotiation processes).
It seems, nevertheless, that the basis for these projects contains an insoluble conflict between the normative commitment to democracy and effective national desire of democracy beyond the state. They also have a potential to repay an effective self-governance at the local and national levels. It seems, that we need not democratic and global, but powerful and effective organizations which could challenge vested interests of global capital, promoting the general welfare — social democracy — at the global level.