Мысль, мышление и сознание
By defining the structure of thought and psyche content it has been indicated that the consciousness is the functional element of the psyche actualized by a subject to organize its life activity. The thought with its operations is considered as the mechanism of consciousness. It has been argued that the reflection is put on the thinking and there is no reason to consider it separately from thought. In keeping with this argumentation it has shown that all cognitive processes could be divided into two categories: the processes that support the mental activity and the processes that acts as the mechanisms of that support. Based on the investigation of thought and mind relationship the psychological content interpretation of such operation as the judgment, mental decision, and reasoning
The systems genetic approach has been used for studying students` mental development. The ability development is considered in terms of intellectual operations acquistion. An aim of the study is to identify the components of the abilities which are consciously acquired by student in the learning process. The study desing is included the work to teach students the intellectual operations and use them at work with training materials, and the psychological testing of control and experimental student groups before and after training test to diagnose the level of intellectual development. The study was conducted with the teachers and students of primary and secondary school.
The commented famous work by S.J. Gould and R.C. Lewontin is crucial not only to sociobiology critique but to polemics on evolutionary theory in general. Reflection provoked by Gould and Lewontin’s paper in the field of philosophy of biology enables to clarify the relation between the adaptationist program and biological reductionism.
We calculate determinants of weighted sums of reflections and of (nested) commutators of reflections. The results obtained generalize the matrix-tree theorem by Kirchhoff and the Pfaffian-hypertree theorem by Massbaum and Vaintrob.
This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
This chapter gives an overview of the evolution of explanatory models of the fundamentals of human motivation throughout the last century: from the concepts of instinct and drive to basic needs, and from the lists of biologically rooted needs to the discovery of non-biological, social, and existential imperatives to human behavior. The integrative model, proposed by the author, distinguishes three qualitatively different levels of individual-world relationships: the biological existence, the social existence, and the personal existence. Objective meta-necessities inherent in each level (including the actualization of potentialities and relating to the environment; social belongingness and integration; self-determination and autonomous choice) underlie special needs relevant to this particular level.
The reflection diagnostic technique is based on long-term fundamental theoretical and methodological researches of Russian psychologists. A new approach to reflection diagnostics is focused on the study of reflexivity mechanisms within the structure of activity. The reflection is considered as the process of person’s consciousness of the means and ways of his/her activity, and of the causes of its successes or failures. By reflection it becomes possible to reproduce past experience, to get the experience and to turn it into the way to act in problem situation.
The assessment of the reflexivity mechanisms quality in activity processes enables to understand the activity as it is processing, to enhance its productivity, to minimize expenditure of time and efforts in life and professional task solving. The technic is based on ideas of subject-activity approach developed by such Russian psychologists as Rubinstein S.L., Abulkhanova K.A. and Brushlinsky V.A., and the psychological model of functional activity system developed by Shadrikov V.D. In keeping with this model the following indices of reflection have been identified:degree of basic need and motive of activity, action and deed awareness (the awareness of what is person actually wants); character of activity, action and deed goal (the presence of clear image of expected result); assessment of extrinsic and intrinsic motive of activity, action and deed; decision-making in activity, action and deed preformation; program (plan) of activity, action and deed; fulfillment of activity, action and deed; assessment of activity, action and deed progress results; qualitative and quantitative descriptions of achieved final result.
The reflection diagnostic technique is a questionnaire that consists of 56 closed questions. The questions are structured according to sequentially solved tasks of activity. The in-depth analysis is implemented by series of open questions. The technic is oriented to adult from 16 to 65 years old.
The first part of this book is devoted to the old problem of fundamental motivations that can hardly be approached in another way, other than theoretically. The second part of the book is devoted to new or rather marginal concepts that seem capable to enrich general models of motivational processes. Part three of the book deals with the issues of self-regulation and self-determination; in the last two decades the problems of motivation can be hardly dealt with without touching these issues. The focus of the last part of the book is cultural context and cultural mediation of motivation. This book was planned not as a collection of discoveries to be considered, but rather as a collection of nontrivial views that may turn helpful for making a better sense of the discoveries actually made. (Imprint: Nova)
The essay on thinking of thinking. The article is motivated by the 80-th birth anniversary of outstanding psychologist and pedagogue V.V. Davydov who was engaged, in collaboration with D.B. Elkonin, in elaboration of psychological foundations and pedagogical practices of developing education. The program he has devised focused on the advance of schoolchildren’s capacity for theoretical thinking and formation of readiness, inclination and capacity for conceptual thinking. An attempt to apply V.V. Davydov’s ideas to analysis of the thinking per se is made. Special attention is given to reflexion and intuition.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.