Learning to Use ‘Public Space’: Urban Space in Post-Soviet St. Petersburg
The article discusses the post-socialist developments of urban public space in St. Petersburg, Russia. The city with a historic center protected by the UNESCO World Heritage status in combination with the Soviet legacy of lack of public participation is facing the problem of public space development. There are two controversial concepts of urban space represented in the public discourse that are analyzed in the article: the concept of a ‘museum city’ and the ‘city for people’. The historic context of transformation (the Soviet period of the strict divide of public and private, and the post- socialist era of individualization and the decay of the public) is used to explain the current debate and difficulties of building an inclusive and tolerant model of public space in St. Petersburg.
New Holland Island is a remarkable quarter in St. Petersburg not only for its central location and historical roots (it was created in 1720), but also for the fact that it has recently been given a new life in urban contexts. The story of New Holland is a story of transformation from ship-building constructions to perfect space for in-door and open-air cultural activities – with lawns and sun beds, leisure areas for adults and children, and residential areas for artists. One of the main features of the project is private ownership meaning that regeneration development strategy is formed by an investor.
The issue of capital city relocation is a topic of debate for more than forty countries around the world. In this first book to discuss the issue, Vadim Rossman offers an in-depth analysis of the subject, highlighting the global trends and the key factors that motivate different countries to consider such projects, analyzing the outcomes and drawing lessons from recent capital city transfers worldwide for governments and policy-makers.
The paper aims to discuss the multifaceted links between the marine environment of the Gulf of Finland and the representations of the large complex of cultural heritage related to the city of St. Petersburg. The paper is based on a spatial imaginary of Greater St. Petersburg as the cultural and technological unity of the city and adjacent waterscapes in the times of the Russian Empire. This concept is instrumental to see the historical links between the parts of the heritage complex that has by now disintegrated and has been separated by state borders.
From XVI - XVII centuries, modern European political philosophy put the State in the center of his investigations. The key-question raised in several works of the philosophers of modern Time until the XVIII century was the question about the State sovereignty. The XVIII century became a starting point in the philosophical tradition where the State was often considered from the point of view of his providential divinity or from the point of view of the general power which it represents. The novelty of the XVIII century consisted in the more definite pronunciation of the liberal requirement of the rational limitation of power of State by individual liberty. It is a question of putting the emphasis on modern subject of human rights, or natural rights. This evolution of political ideas in Europe influenced a lot the history of Russia who has been for the XVIII century in the course of hereuropeanization at political and cultural levels. In both domains, this transfer and the same expansion of European ideas and valuesto Russia brought in big conflicts inside which showed itself, on the one hand, in the opposition of the imperial ambition of the Russian State and of the strengthening of nationalism in the XIX century; and, on the other hand, in the opposition of universalism and of nationalism, as ethical and valuableprinciple, caused by cultural difference between Europe and Russia. In this article it is examined the reflexing of the Russian authors of XVIII-XIX centuries about the constitution of the best political regime and on his foundations, among which public education was considered as one of most important. Debates on the purposes of national public education, showed well the importance of the education of a new type of the personand of his training in compliance with new national purposes.
Identity of citizens in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, in particular those who joined the EU, has changed a lot since the enlargement. Ideas of constructed identity (through theory of constructivism), role of political institutions in the process of identity formation as well as concepts of center-periphery are discussed in this article.
The book is written by a group of researchers and students of the Higher School of Economics on the results of a three-year research project. It is dedicated to State Museum-reserve Tsaritsyno: a vibrant cultural space, in which different ideas and different concepts collide; that of history, culture, public space and its functions, norm, etc. Different logics of production of the atmosphere of the contemporary (post-Soviet , capital ) city intertwine there as well. The visitor of Tsaritsyno is the main protagonist of the book. This historic attraction works for him, and he himself defines and changes its content and the conditions for its development. The researchers addressed this contemporary visitor of Tsaritsyno more general theoretical and specific ethnographic questions. The book is illustrated by many photographs made by the participants of the project.