Signo, significação, representação
This article aims at investigating the conceptual course of sign-significance-representation throughout different philosophical moments, because it becomes fundamental for the understanding of the scientific development of the processes of signification.
In this paper the author explores how such phenomena of consciousness as a symbolization and a functioning of cultural phenomena are interrelated. It seems important to find out specifics of symbol as a product of symbolization, distinguish it from the other logical-semantic categories. To solve these problems, in general, the author turns to Losev’s and Cassirer’s approaches. As a result of the investigation, it becomes clear that there is a symbolic function of consciousness, which is primarily responsible for mediating of the material human perception, providing a principle for the organization of entire systems of meanings. The main paper thesis is the following: the principle of symbolical organization of the content plays a key role in the process of applying the meanings to the reality. So, it proves that the formation and functioning of the sphere of cultural phenomena is strongly influenced by symbolical principle.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
Formation of democratic societies of the Western type presupposes appearance on the historical scene of a new strong actor - the bourgeois class: "No bourgeoisie, no democracy" (Barrington Moore). The articulation and defense of vital interests of that class creates a new social space - "the bourgeois public sphere" which helps to make up "counterbalance" to absolutism of a corporate state - a civil society, the core of which is composed by public opinion. In the confrontation between the authorities and society one of the most important roles is played by the press that provides free debate and discussion of generally valid problems, especially economic and political. The recognition of the mass media role was stamped in its characterization in XIII century as "the fourth power". Technological development of the media incredibly expanded its functions, turning journalists into creating informational analogue of reality, saturating daily life with new meanings. Methods of the representation of reality, the specific nature of political influence of journalists - key members of the reflexive elites (Helmut Shelski), are the themes of this article.
Публичная сфера, журналистика, четвертая власть, порядки знания, Повседневность, научное и повседневное знание, экспертиза, Репрезентация, public sphere, journalism, fourth estate, orders of knowledge, Everyday life, scientific and everyday knowledge, Expertise, representation
In this paper a sign-based or semiotic formalism is considered. Neurophysiological and psychological researches indicate sign-based structures, which are the basic elements of the world model of a human subject. These elements are formed during his/her activity and communication. In this formalism it was possible to formulate and solve the problem of goal-setting, i.e. generating the goal of behavior.
A semiotic interpretation of «I» is given, and conditions of existence of the I outside the boundaries of subjective reality (the possibility of «noumenal I»). We start by acknowledging the imaginary character of the I: in front of us is but a ghost, some «patterns», «compositions», «drawings», «charts» of some object X named «I» that are experience by me (who?), and some «texts» that describe the inner machinery of the former and its relations to the environment (and, among other things, to other similar ghosts of «You», «We», «They»). Further, we discover that «I», a symbolic formation within the psyche, becomes its own «object» (designatum) by mediating the currents of activity the individual generates as a physical entity. The real I is a form in which an individual exists, defined in the encounter of his/her inherent «subject less» activity with the cultural symbols (prototypes) of the I, «impressed» into the individual by culture. As a result of those encounters emerge the true subject of cognition, which constructs an image of the world (contemplative I, thinking I, receiving I, possessing I), the true subject of activity (goal-setting I, achieving I, influencing I, giving I), and the true experiencing subject (enduring I, coexisting I, transcending I).
Th e article is devoted to the secondary nomination. The essence of the act of nomination is to fi x the communication of the subject and name, the phenomenon and its designation, the structures of the consciousness and its object. Man picks the right means of nomination when forms a notion of an object or phenomenon. The results showed that one of the types of secondary nomination is a semantic transposition, which does not change the material appearance of rethoughtful unit and leads to formation of its new value, i.e. for multiple purposes, namely, to metaphor, in particular, an anthropomorphic comparison.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.