Готовность выпускников вузов к рынку труда
The paper examines the notion of employability by reviewing English research literature on the topic. It also looks at the impact of a number of factors on employability enhancement.
A youth labour market limited in size and regulated by the state can engender specific strategies of market entry for university students. The article discusses the socio-economic context of a regulated labour market analyzing several starting work strategies of students depending on their working status, criteria for choosing the working place and their plans to practise their profession. Cluster analysis of survey data collected among the Belarusian universities’ students (2016, 2017, and 2019) characterises typical patterns of students’ labour strategies and their criteria for selecting employment place. The analysis demonstrates that a majority of students are driven by a simultaneous pursuit of value orientations to self-realization and material well-being and diverging, potentially conflicting welfare expectations and plans to work sticking to their education profile. Financial remuneration does not dominate their choices, which differs from the motivations of young professionals according to other surveys. Labour market regulations play a controversial role: guaranteeing the first working place for the students they limit their freedom of choice in the labour sphere. Our findings contribute to the discussion of how students use different strategies to solve the clash between their need for personal development and the limitations of a labour market with the government regulation of graduates’ employment.
The author presents a review of “In the Shadow of Regulation: Informality in the Russian Labor Market” edited by V. Gimpelson and R. Kapeliushnikov (HSE Publishing House, 2014). This book is designed as a collection of texts devoted to various aspects of informal employment in the Russian labor market. The book review attempts to explore whether informal employment can be treated as a result of imperfections in the formal employment system or a special sector that helps to overcome those shortcomings. To answer this question, the author turns to basic definitions in order to understand who can be described as "informally employed". Different approaches to defining informality are given. Then, based on empirical results, it’s demonstrated that the position of "informally employed" сan be better as well as worse, compared to "formal employment". The lack of social guarantees can be considered the most evident shortcoming of being informally employed, while saving money due to the absence of taxation can be seen as a key advantage. There are though countries with both higher and lower incomes among the informally employed in world markets. Turning to Russian realities one should pay attention to the heterogeneity of informal employment: in general, informally employed workers have lower incomes, but some groups, such as freelancers, earn more money. The self-estimation of informally employed people does not prove the idea of informal employment as a problem to the employed themselves as they do not assess their status as lower than being formally employed. Taking into account the variety of aspects of informality, it’s hard to assess it either positively or negatively, but it’s rather evident that the struggle against informality itself would be erroneous while the best way to reduce the informal sector is to correct the formal sector to make it more attractive.
The paper analyses factors causing students to start using labour market strategies while they are still in the process of acquiring higher education. These strategies are specified and thoroughly described in order to show a new type of behaviour and aspirations typical ofthe modern youth. Awareness of students’ current orientations towards the labour market helps in organization of the educational environment inside the academia.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.