Эффекты штрафных санкций: от теории к практике
Issues of ex post evaluation of mergers and antitrust bodies prescriptions are discussed. Among them: interrelation of enactment and enforcement from the perspectives of errors of I and II types in antitrust mergers control; probable consequences of mergers for competition; Аннотации к статьям 206 тьям № 1, 2012 comparative advantages and failures of decision variants available for antitrust bodies; ways of decision-making in expected merger. Also there are issues on efficacy of antimonopoly body decisions taking into account cost of monitoring, sanctioning of mergers participants, including influence on competition condition on relevant markets.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.