Жизнь после девятого класса: как личные достижения учащихся и ресурсы их семей влияют на жизненные траектории? На материалах лонгитюдного исследования
This case study has two goals: (1) to present Russia’s experience in strengthening its student assessment system, and (2) to share lessons learned for the benefit of other countries that may be interested in strengthening their own student assessment systems. The paper examines reforms to the enabling context that supports educational assessment in Russia—that is, reforms that affected the policy framework and institutions, the development of human capacity, and funding sources. It then analyzes reforms to large‐scale assessments, examinations, and classroom assessment activities; identifies the driving forces that contributed to the reforms; and extracts key lessons about strengthening an educational assessment system.
Perseverance has a rather long history of study within achievement motivation literature (McClelland, 1961, 1987; Heckhausen, 1980, 1989) and recently in positive psychology as one of the important character strengths (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Peterson & Seligman defined it as voluntary continuation of action or behavior that is goal directed and typically in the face of difficulty or obstacles.
Recently a new similar construct appeared in psychology, namely grit which was defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals (Duckworth et al., 2007). Grit was found to be a predictor of different types of educational attainment among variety of samples. Our own studies confirmed this relation, grit accounted for 8% of the variance in academic achievement of university students (Gordeeva et al., 2011; Gordeeva & Sychev, 2012). The role of perseverance or grit couldn’t be overestimated as it’s a source of achievement in every field. However, it remains unclear what lays behind grit or persistence, what moves a person to display grit? The aim of present study is to investigate the motivational antecedents of grit.
In accordance with structural-dynamic model of achievement motivation (Gordeeva, 2006, 2011) it was hypothesized that three sources of perseverance could be distinguished: 1) a module standing from the profile of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, 2) self-regulatory module responsible for effective goal attainment, including self-control and purposefulness, and 3) cognitive components module including positive expectations, optimistic attributional style, and self-efficacy.
To measure perseverance and motivational variables a battery of tests was used including Grit scale (Duckworth et al., 2007, alpha Cronbach for Russian version for perseverance of effort .70, for consistency of interest .80), Aidman’s perseverance scale (1990), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientation scale (Amabile et al., 1994), Flow scale (Leontiev, 2008), academic motivation scale (AMS-C, Vallerand et al., 1992), self-control scale (Tangney et al., 2004), hope scale (Snyder et al., 1991), academic self-control scale (Perry et al., 2001), modified version of ASQ (Peterson et al., 1982, Gordeeva et al., 2009), and LOT (Scheier & Carver, 1985).
The sample comprised 432 participants, students from three departments Moscow State University and from four departments of Altay State Pedagogical University (Academy of Education) (M= 18 years, SD=1.3).
Results. Perseverant students outperformed their less perseverant peers. Grit and perseverance scores were consistently associated with higher GPAs. The cluster analysis showed that most gritty students were from cluster with high learning motivation, intrinsic achievement motivation, identified and applied motivation. The main hypothesis and overall model of three types of persistence’s antecedents were confirmed. The most reliable SEM model predicting persistence was comprised by intrinsic achievement motivation, consistency of interests, and optimistic attributional style (RMSEA=.04).
However, the results show that high perseverance is not the only way to academic success. The second path to achieve academic success is through high and predominant intrinsic motivation accompanied by moderate level of perseverance. However this second pattern was twice more rare in our overall sample (19% compared to 40% to the first pattern). The theoretical advancements and implications for future research will be discussed.
Individual psychological predictors in longitudinal studies of professional and educational careers The article presents first results of the Monitoring of educational and labor trajectories of high school and university graduates. This project has been launched by HSE in 2009. The research group has conducted surveys among university students in their last year studies in two regions of Russia. The purpose has been to determine individual indicators that would best predict changes in the educational and professional trajectory. There have been determined groups of students for whom the probability to change career after the graduation is particularly high. The article discusses the significance of the chosen independent variables as concerns the two main reasons for a trajectory change: lack of certainty in the professional career in the last year of studies and low academic achievements of students. The future possibilities of the launched study are discussed.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.