Структура вузовской сети: от советского к российскому «мастер-плану»
The article proves that both excessive and insufficient use of criminal law measures to counteract crime cannot be justified. It also draws conclusions about how to find the 'golden mean' in this respect, which could be most beneficial to law and order. The author of the article outlines ways to improve criminal law and related laws, as well as ways to shape the modern contents of criminal law in accord with the tendencies to liberalization and pragmatization (making it more pragmatic). In particular, the author suggests making the policy of punishment differentiation more distinct taking into account the principle of justice.
Differentiation and integration are typical processes for modern firm management. The article describes the system of modern management. It defines the place of processes in the structure of the management object. The author characterizes processes as the management object and presents the integration trends of management
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.