The Middle Income Group in China and Russia
This book includes a series of papers that mainly discuss the proposition of “double middle-income traps.” It analyzes various perspectives of middle-income groups of Russia and China including employment, education, consumption, mobility, social insurance, social values and identity, social and political participation. This book further indicates that the expansion of middle-income groups plays an important role in promoting mass consumption, maintaining continuous and stable economic growth, and overcoming the double middle-income traps. The middle class and middle-income group generally owns higher economic capital and cultural capital and is proved to be the main strength in expanding consumption by many empirical studies. However, the middle class and middle-income group has currently encountered hindrance to upward mobility, life quality, social security and class identity, which prevent the expansion of the middle-income group and improvement of social structure. Through comparing the middle-income groups of these two countries, this book gives us a panoramic view of their social and economic condition. Successfully combining theory and concrete practical guidelines, the book offers a valuable resource for all those active in this dynamic field. The book is important for students, scholars, researchers and professionals in economic and social science fields.
The present chapter explores the middle income groups regarding their employment status and place in industrial relations. According to the prior literature, once we get the evidence that certain middle income groups hold advantaged positions in the labor market—for example, more stable employment and more influential negotiation position with employers or lower unemployment risks, or they represent a group of skilled labor professions and are able to find a more interesting and promising job where human capital is in demand, we will be entitled to speak about class-based nature of the middle income groups in Russia