The Science and Technology Labor Force: The Value of Doctorate Holders and Development of Professional Careers
Given the constantly high demand for skilled workers in professions and industries around the world, national governments strive for developing and implementing comprehensive and sustained policy measures to develop human potential of countries. This is especially done by educating people towards tertiary graduates and most recently by enforcing doctoral education and training. The aim of these initiatives is to make highly qualified graduates available to the labor market with the ambition to achieve and maintain sustainable competitiveness of the national labor force (OECD 2011). There is consensus that if countries want to develop and maintain competencies and capacities for science, technology and innovation the education and training system needs to be strengthened at all its levels.
Improving human potential in R&D and increasing its performance are key to the development of human capital globally. The topic of R&D personnel has been on Russia’s S&T policy agenda for roughly 20 years. There are numerous reasons for the persistence and even aggravation of existing problems. In the 1990s, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the R&D sector went through a serious economic crisis. Amid negative changes in the internal and external environment there was a sharp drop in the provision of resources for research, reducing the productivity of research and experimental activity and its contribution to the development of the economy and society as a whole (Gokhberg et al. 2011; Kuznetsova 2013). Global positions in this area have also deteriorated. The level of publication activity in the country shifted from 3rd place during the Soviet era to 6th place at the start of the 1990s, and to 15th place in 2013. In the period 2000–2013 the proportion of publications by Russian authors in scientific journals indexed by Web of Science decreased from 3.22–1.92 % (Brazil—2.48 %, Japan—5.27 %, USA—24.85 %). However, in terms of patent activity (in 2013 28,765 patent applications filed in Russia by residents, 44,914—by residents and