The present paper aims at showing the necessity to distinguish two aspects of emotion recognition ability, accuracy of the recognition of emotion types that constitute the emotional state of the observed person and sensitivity to the intensity of the observed person’s emotions. A new technique that measures these two aspects of emotion recognition, the Videotest of Emotion Recognition, is proposed. The accuracy and sensitivity indices provided by the Videotest of Emotion Recognition have high reliability and yield different correlation patterns with other cognitive and personality variables.
A debate between Stankov and Lynn has focused on whether national differences in cognitive achievement are primarily a matter of culturally-driven motivation or genetically determined mental ability, measured in terms of IQ. We present evidence showing that a third position is more conclusive: while genetic differences are a driving force behind differences in academic achievement between nations, these genetic differences operate on motivation rather than ability. Indeed, across 53 countries from all continents, 90% of the variance in national cognitive achievement can be explained by: (1) a recently reported national genetic index related to life history strategy; (2) educational opportunities as measured by the education index of the United Nations Development Program, and (3) a geographic variable: Welzel's index for cool water condition. In contrast, neither national wealth (gross domestic product per person), nor socioeconomic inequality (Gini index), nor pathogen prevalence show a significant effect. We explain these findings by combining theoretical propositions about academic achievement from two complementary approaches: life history strategy and the cool water condition. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.