## Mathematics

This volume collects the referred papers based on plenary, invited, and oral talks, as well on the posters presented at the Third International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2018), which took place September 24-27, 2018 in Moscow. The Conference continues the tradition started by an inaugural conference in 2015. It took place on the campus of A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics in Strogino, was jointly organized by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics and Science Center in Chernogolovka.

The Conference is a multidisciplinary meeting, with a focus on computational physics and related subjects. Indeed, methods of computational physics prove useful in a broad spectrum of research in multiple branches of natural sciences, and this volume provides a sample.

We hope that this volume will interest readers, and we are already looking forward to the next conference in the series.

Moscow, Russia

November, 2018

CSP2018 Conference Chair and Volume Editor

Lev Shchur

This book covers the classical theory of Markov chains on general state-spaces as well as many recent developments. The theoretical results are illustrated by simple examples, many of which are taken from Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The book is self-contained, while all the results are carefully and concisely proven. Bibliographical notes are added at the end of each chapter to provide an overview of the literature.

This book offers a concise yet thorough introduction to the notion of moduli spaces of complex algebraic curves. Over the last few decades, this notion has become central not only in algebraic geometry, but in mathematical physics, including string theory, as well.

The book begins by studying individual smooth algebraic curves, including the most beautiful ones, before addressing families of curves. Studying families of algebraic curves often proves to be more efficient than studying individual curves: these families and their total spaces can still be smooth, even if there are singular curves among their members. A major discovery of the 20th century, attributed to P. Deligne and D. Mumford, was that curves with only mild singularities form smooth compact moduli spaces. An unexpected byproduct of this discovery was the realization that the analysis of more complex curve singularities is not a necessary step in understanding the geometry of the moduli spaces.

The book does not use the sophisticated machinery of modern algebraic geometry, and most classical objects related to curves – such as Jacobian, space of holomorphic differentials, the Riemann-Roch theorem, and Weierstrass points – are treated at a basic level that does not require a profound command of algebraic geometry, but which is sufficient for extending them to vector bundles and other geometric objects associated to moduli spaces. Nevertheless, it offers clear information on the construction of the moduli spaces, and provides readers with tools for practical operations with this notion.

Based on several lecture courses given by the authors at the Independent University of Moscow and Higher School of Economics, the book also includes a wealth of problems, making it suitable not only for individual research, but also as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate coursework.

This volume, dedicated to the memory of the great American mathematician Bertram Kostant (May 24, 1928 – February 2, 2017), is a collection of 19 invited papers by leading mathematicians working in Lie theory, representation theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical physics. Kostant’s fundamental work in all of these areas has provided deep new insights and connections, and has created new fields of research. This volume features the only published articles of important recent results of the contributors with full details of their proofs. Key topics include: Poisson structures and potentials (A. Alekseev, A. Berenstein, B. Hoffman) Vertex algebras (T. Arakawa, K. Kawasetsu) Modular irreducible representations of semisimple Lie algebras (R. Bezrukavnikov, I. Losev) Asymptotic Hecke algebras (A. Braverman, D. Kazhdan) Tensor categories and quantum groups (A. Davydov, P. Etingof, D. Nikshych) Nil- Hecke algebras and Whittaker D-modules (V. Ginzburg) Toeplitz operators (V. Guillemin, A. Uribe, Z. Wang) Kashiwara crystals (A. Joseph) Characters of highest weight modules (V. Kac, M. Wakimoto) Alcove polytopes (T. Lam, A. Postnikov) Representation theory of quantized Gieseker varieties (I. Losev) Generalized Bruhat cells and integrable systems (J.-H. Liu, Y. Mi) Almost characters (G. Lusztig) Verlinde formulas (E. Meinrenken) Dirac operator and equivariant index (P.-É. Paradan, M. Vergne) Modality of representations and geometry of-groups (V. L. Popov) Distributions on homogeneous spaces (N. Ressayre) Reduction of orthogonal representations (J.- P. Serre).

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Analysis of Images, Social Networks and Texts, AIST 2018, held in Moscow, Russia, in July 2018.

The 29 full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 107 submissions (of which 26 papers were rejected without being reviewed). The papers are organized in topical sections on natural language processing; analysis of images and video; general topics of data analysis; analysis of dynamic behavior through event data; optimization problems on graphs and network structures; and innovative systems.

This book constitutes extended, revised and selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Optimization Problems and Their Applications, OPTA 2018, held in Omsk, Russia in July 2018. The 27 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 73 submissions. The papers are listed in thematic sections, namely location problems, scheduling and routing problems, optimization problems in data analysis, mathematical programming, game theory and economical applications, applied optimization problems and metaheuristics.

Control of Discrete-Time Descriptor Systems takes an anisotropy-based approach to the explanation of random input disturbance with an information-theoretic representation. It describes the random input signal more precisely, and the anisotropic norm minimization included in the book enables readers to tune their controllers better through the mathematical methods provided. The book contains numerous examples of practical applications of descriptor systems in various fields, from robotics to economics, and presents an information-theoretic approach to the mathematical description of coloured noise. Anisotropy-based analysis and design for descriptor systems is supplied along with proofs of basic statements, which help readers to understand the algorithms proposed, and to undertake their own numerical simulations. This book serves as a source of ideas for academic researchers and postgraduate students working in the control of discrete-time systems. The control design procedures outlined are numerically effective and easily implementable in MATLAB®

The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.

The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.

It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.

This is an advanced guide to optimal stopping and control, focusing on advanced Monte Carlo simulation and its application to finance. Written for quantitative finance practitioners and researchers in academia, the book looks at the classical simulation based algorithms before introducing some of the new, cutting edge approaches under development.

Intended to bridge the gap between the latest methodological developments and cross-cultural research, this interdisciplinary resource presents the latest strategies for analyzing cross-cultural data. Techniques are demonstrated through the use of applications that employ cross-national data sets such as the latest European Social Survey. With an emphasis on the generalized latent variable approach, internationally prominent researchers from a variety of fields explain how the methods work, how to apply them, and how they relate to other methods presented in the book. Syntax and graphical and verbal explanations of the techniques are included. Online resources, available at www.routledge.com/9781138690271, include some of the data sets and syntax commands used in the book.

This edited collection presents a range of methods that can be used to analyse linguistic data quantitatively. A series of case studies of Russian data spanning different aspects of modern linguistics serve as the basis for a discussion of methodological and theoretical issues in linguistic data analysis. The book presents current trends in quantitative linguistics, evaluates methods and presents the advantages and disadvantages of each. The chapters contain introductions to the methods and relevant references for further reading.

The Russian language, despite being one of the most studied in the world, until recently has been little explored quantitatively. After a burst of research activity in the years 1960-1980, quantitative studies of Russian vanished. They are now reappearing in an entirely different context. Today we have large and deeply annotated corpora available for extended quantitative research, such as the Russian National Corpus, ruWac, RuTenTen, to name just a few (websites for these and other resources will be found in a special section in the References). The present volume is intended to fill the lacuna between the available data and the methods that can be applied to studying them.

Our goal is to present current trends in researching Russian quantitative linguistics, to evaluate the research methods vis-à-vis Russian data, and to show both the advantages and the disadvantages of the methods. We especially encouraged our authors to focus on evaluating statistical methods and new models of analysis. New findings concern applicability, evaluation, and the challenges that arise from using quantitative approaches to Russian data.

This volume is a tribute to Maxim Kontsevich, one of the most original and influential mathematicians of our time. Maxim’s vision has inspired major developments in many areas of mathematics, ranging all the way from probability theory to motives over finite fields, and has brought forth a paradigm shift at the interface of modern geometry and mathematical physics. Many of his papers have opened completely new directions of research and led to the solutions of many classical problems. This book collects papers by leading experts currently engaged in research on topics close to Maxim’s heart.

We study typical points with respect to ergofic averaging of a general dynamical system.

The present Yearbook (which is the sixth in the series) is subtitled Economy, Demography, Culture, and Cosmic Civilizations. To some extent it reveals the extraordinary potential of scientific research. The common feature of all our Yearbooks, including the present volume, is the usage of formal methods and social studies methods in their synthesis to analyze different phenomena. In other words, if to borrow Alexander Pushkin's words, ‘to verify the algebra with harmony'. One should note that publishing in a single collection the articles that apply mathematical methods to the study of various epochs and scales - from deep historical reconstruction to the pressing problems of the modern world - reflects our approach to the selection of contributions for the Yearbook. History and Mathematics, Social Studies and formal methods, as previously noted, can bring nontrivial results in the studies of different spheres and epochs. This issue consists of three main sections: (I) Historical and Technological Dimensions includes two papers (the first is about the connection between genes, myths and waves of the peopling of Americas; the second one is devoted to quantitative analysis of innovative activity and competition in technological sphere in the Middle Ages and Modern Period); (II) Economic and Cultural Dimensions (the contributions are mostly focused on modern period); (III) Modeling and Theories includes two papers with interesting models (the first one concerns modeling punctuated equilibria apparent in the macropattern of urbanization over time; in the second one the author attempts to estimate the number of Communicative Civilizations). We hope that this issue will be interesting and useful both for historians and mathematicians, as well as for all those dealing with various social and natural sciences.

For $\Gamma$ a cofinite Kleinian group acting on $\mathbb{H}^3$, we study the Prime Geodesic Theorem on $M=\Gamma \backslash \mathbb{H}^3$, which asks about the asymptotic behaviour of lengths of primitive closed geodesics (prime geodesics) on $M$. Let $E_{\Gamma}(X)$ be the error in the counting of prime geodesics with length at most $\log X$. For the Picard manifold, $\Gamma=\mathrm{PSL}(2,\mathbb{Z}[i])$, we improve the classical bound of Sarnak, $E_{\Gamma}(X)=O(X^{5/3+\epsilon})$, to $E_{\Gamma}(X)=O(X^{13/8+\epsilon})$. In the process we obtain a mean subconvexity estimate for the Rankin--Selberg $L$-function attached to Maass--Hecke cusp forms. We also investigate the second moment of $E_{\Gamma}(X)$ for a general cofinite group $\Gamma$, and show that it is bounded by $O(X^{16/5+\epsilon})$.

We develop a new method for studying sums of Kloosterman sums related to the spectral exponential sum. As a corollary, we obtain a new proof of the estimate of Soundararajan and Young for the error term in the prime geodesic theorem.

We prove new upper bounds for a spectral exponential sum by refining the process by which one evaluates mean values of L-functions multiplied by an oscillating function. In particular, we introduce a method which is capable of taking into consideration the oscillatory behaviour of the function. This gives an improvement of the result of Luo and Sarnak when $T\geq X^{1/6+2\theta/3+\epsilon}$. Furthermore, this proves the conjecture of Petridis and Risager in some ranges. Finally, this allows obtaining a new proof of the Soundararajan-Young error estimate in the prime geodesic theorem.

In this paper various analytic techniques are combined in order to study the average of a product of a Hecke L-function and a symmetric square L-function at the central point in the weight aspect. The evaluation of the second main term relies on the theory of Maass forms of half-integral weight and the Rankin-Selberg method. The error terms are bounded using the Liouville-Green approximation.

In this paper, a physical and mathematical interpretation of the passage from the Bose distribution to the Fermi distribution of nuclear matter is presented. We consider the notion of "coat" and introduce the notion of "lacunary indeterminacy", which is a region that contains a neighborhood of the activity a = 0 and is the boundary between the Bose particle region and the Fermi particle region when the nucleon separates from the atomic nucleus. Our approach yields previously unknown expressions for extremal values of activity in passing from a Bose-type region to a Fermi-type region provided we know the de Broglie wavelength and the volume of the atomic nucleus.

In this paper we prove that a joint distribution of a locally integrable increasing process $X^{\circ}$ and its compensator $A^{\circ}$ at a terminal moment of time can be realized as a joint terminal distribution of another locally integrable increasing process $X^{\star}$ and its compensator $A^{\star}$, $A^{\star}$ being continuous.

We give a survey of approaches for analyzing the sensitivity of non-dominated alternatives to changes in the parameters of partial quasi-orderings that define preferences. Such parameters can include values of importance coefficients for different criteria or boundaries of interval estimates of the degrees of superiority in the importance of some criteria over others, boundaries of intervals of criteria value tradeoffs uncertainty, and others.

Formal language theory has a deep connection with such areas as static code analysis, graph database querying, formal verifica- tion, and compressed data processing. Many application problems can be formulated in terms of languages intersection. The Bar-Hillel theo- rem states that context-free languages are closed under intersection with a regular set. This theorem has a constructive proof and thus provides a formal justification of correctness of the algorithms for applications mentioned above. Mechanization of the Bar-Hillel theorem, therefore, is both a fundamental result of formal language theory and a basis for the certified implementation of the algorithms for applications. In this work, we present the mechanized proof of the Bar-Hillel theorem in Coq.

In this article we study the Gieseker–Maruyama moduli spaces B(e, n) of stable rank 2 algebraic vector bundles with Chern classes c1 = e ∈ {−1, 0} and c2 = n ≥ 1 on the projective space P3 . We construct the two new inﬁnite series Σ0 and Σ1 of irreducible components of the spaces B(e, n) for e = 0 and e = −1, respectively. General bundles of these components are obtained as cohomology sheaves of monads whose middle term is a rank 4 symplectic instanton bundle in case e = 0, respectively, twisted symplectic bundle in case e = −1. We show that the series Σ0 contains components for all big enough values of n (more precisely, at least for n ≥ 146). Σ0 yields the next example, after the series of instanton components, of an inﬁnite series of components of B(0, n) satisfying this property.