## Mathematics

This volume collects the referred papers based on plenary, invited, and oral talks, as well on the posters presented at the Third International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2018), which took place September 24-27, 2018 in Moscow. The Conference continues the tradition started by an inaugural conference in 2015. It took place on the campus of A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics in Strogino, was jointly organized by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics and Science Center in Chernogolovka.

The Conference is a multidisciplinary meeting, with a focus on computational physics and related subjects. Indeed, methods of computational physics prove useful in a broad spectrum of research in multiple branches of natural sciences, and this volume provides a sample.

We hope that this volume will interest readers, and we are already looking forward to the next conference in the series.

Moscow, Russia

November, 2018

CSP2018 Conference Chair and Volume Editor

Lev Shchur

This book covers the classical theory of Markov chains on general state-spaces as well as many recent developments. The theoretical results are illustrated by simple examples, many of which are taken from Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The book is self-contained, while all the results are carefully and concisely proven. Bibliographical notes are added at the end of each chapter to provide an overview of the literature.

I show that Hurwitz numbers may be generated by certain correlation functions which appear in quantum chaos.

This book offers a concise yet thorough introduction to the notion of moduli spaces of complex algebraic curves. Over the last few decades, this notion has become central not only in algebraic geometry, but in mathematical physics, including string theory, as well.

The book begins by studying individual smooth algebraic curves, including the most beautiful ones, before addressing families of curves. Studying families of algebraic curves often proves to be more efficient than studying individual curves: these families and their total spaces can still be smooth, even if there are singular curves among their members. A major discovery of the 20th century, attributed to P. Deligne and D. Mumford, was that curves with only mild singularities form smooth compact moduli spaces. An unexpected byproduct of this discovery was the realization that the analysis of more complex curve singularities is not a necessary step in understanding the geometry of the moduli spaces.

The book does not use the sophisticated machinery of modern algebraic geometry, and most classical objects related to curves – such as Jacobian, space of holomorphic differentials, the Riemann-Roch theorem, and Weierstrass points – are treated at a basic level that does not require a profound command of algebraic geometry, but which is sufficient for extending them to vector bundles and other geometric objects associated to moduli spaces. Nevertheless, it offers clear information on the construction of the moduli spaces, and provides readers with tools for practical operations with this notion.

Based on several lecture courses given by the authors at the Independent University of Moscow and Higher School of Economics, the book also includes a wealth of problems, making it suitable not only for individual research, but also as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate coursework.

The assembly process is extremely complex for aircraft and its management requires to address numerous optimization problems related to the assignment of tasks to workstations, staffing problem for each workstation and finally the assignment of tasks to operators at each workstation. This paper treats the latter problem dealing with the assignment of tasks to operators under ergonomic constraints. The problem of optimal tasks scheduling in aircraft assembly line is modelled as Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP). The objective of this research is to assign tasks to operators and to find an optimal schedule of task processing under economic and ergonomic constraints. Two different models to solve this problem are presented and evaluated on an industrial case study.

This volume, dedicated to the memory of the great American mathematician Bertram Kostant (May 24, 1928 – February 2, 2017), is a collection of 19 invited papers by leading mathematicians working in Lie theory, representation theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical physics. Kostant’s fundamental work in all of these areas has provided deep new insights and connections, and has created new fields of research. This volume features the only published articles of important recent results of the contributors with full details of their proofs. Key topics include: Poisson structures and potentials (A. Alekseev, A. Berenstein, B. Hoffman) Vertex algebras (T. Arakawa, K. Kawasetsu) Modular irreducible representations of semisimple Lie algebras (R. Bezrukavnikov, I. Losev) Asymptotic Hecke algebras (A. Braverman, D. Kazhdan) Tensor categories and quantum groups (A. Davydov, P. Etingof, D. Nikshych) Nil- Hecke algebras and Whittaker D-modules (V. Ginzburg) Toeplitz operators (V. Guillemin, A. Uribe, Z. Wang) Kashiwara crystals (A. Joseph) Characters of highest weight modules (V. Kac, M. Wakimoto) Alcove polytopes (T. Lam, A. Postnikov) Representation theory of quantized Gieseker varieties (I. Losev) Generalized Bruhat cells and integrable systems (J.-H. Liu, Y. Mi) Almost characters (G. Lusztig) Verlinde formulas (E. Meinrenken) Dirac operator and equivariant index (P.-É. Paradan, M. Vergne) Modality of representations and geometry of-groups (V. L. Popov) Distributions on homogeneous spaces (N. Ressayre) Reduction of orthogonal representations (J.- P. Serre).

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Analysis of Images, Social Networks and Texts, AIST 2018, held in Moscow, Russia, in July 2018.

The 29 full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 107 submissions (of which 26 papers were rejected without being reviewed). The papers are organized in topical sections on natural language processing; analysis of images and video; general topics of data analysis; analysis of dynamic behavior through event data; optimization problems on graphs and network structures; and innovative systems.

This book constitutes extended, revised and selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Optimization Problems and Their Applications, OPTA 2018, held in Omsk, Russia in July 2018. The 27 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 73 submissions. The papers are listed in thematic sections, namely location problems, scheduling and routing problems, optimization problems in data analysis, mathematical programming, game theory and economical applications, applied optimization problems and metaheuristics.

Control of Discrete-Time Descriptor Systems takes an anisotropy-based approach to the explanation of random input disturbance with an information-theoretic representation. It describes the random input signal more precisely, and the anisotropic norm minimization included in the book enables readers to tune their controllers better through the mathematical methods provided. The book contains numerous examples of practical applications of descriptor systems in various fields, from robotics to economics, and presents an information-theoretic approach to the mathematical description of coloured noise. Anisotropy-based analysis and design for descriptor systems is supplied along with proofs of basic statements, which help readers to understand the algorithms proposed, and to undertake their own numerical simulations. This book serves as a source of ideas for academic researchers and postgraduate students working in the control of discrete-time systems. The control design procedures outlined are numerically effective and easily implementable in MATLAB®

The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.

The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.

It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.

This is an advanced guide to optimal stopping and control, focusing on advanced Monte Carlo simulation and its application to finance. Written for quantitative finance practitioners and researchers in academia, the book looks at the classical simulation based algorithms before introducing some of the new, cutting edge approaches under development.

Intended to bridge the gap between the latest methodological developments and cross-cultural research, this interdisciplinary resource presents the latest strategies for analyzing cross-cultural data. Techniques are demonstrated through the use of applications that employ cross-national data sets such as the latest European Social Survey. With an emphasis on the generalized latent variable approach, internationally prominent researchers from a variety of fields explain how the methods work, how to apply them, and how they relate to other methods presented in the book. Syntax and graphical and verbal explanations of the techniques are included. Online resources, available at www.routledge.com/9781138690271, include some of the data sets and syntax commands used in the book.

This edited collection presents a range of methods that can be used to analyse linguistic data quantitatively. A series of case studies of Russian data spanning different aspects of modern linguistics serve as the basis for a discussion of methodological and theoretical issues in linguistic data analysis. The book presents current trends in quantitative linguistics, evaluates methods and presents the advantages and disadvantages of each. The chapters contain introductions to the methods and relevant references for further reading.

The Russian language, despite being one of the most studied in the world, until recently has been little explored quantitatively. After a burst of research activity in the years 1960-1980, quantitative studies of Russian vanished. They are now reappearing in an entirely different context. Today we have large and deeply annotated corpora available for extended quantitative research, such as the Russian National Corpus, ruWac, RuTenTen, to name just a few (websites for these and other resources will be found in a special section in the References). The present volume is intended to fill the lacuna between the available data and the methods that can be applied to studying them.

Our goal is to present current trends in researching Russian quantitative linguistics, to evaluate the research methods vis-à-vis Russian data, and to show both the advantages and the disadvantages of the methods. We especially encouraged our authors to focus on evaluating statistical methods and new models of analysis. New findings concern applicability, evaluation, and the challenges that arise from using quantitative approaches to Russian data.

This volume is a tribute to Maxim Kontsevich, one of the most original and influential mathematicians of our time. Maxim’s vision has inspired major developments in many areas of mathematics, ranging all the way from probability theory to motives over finite fields, and has brought forth a paradigm shift at the interface of modern geometry and mathematical physics. Many of his papers have opened completely new directions of research and led to the solutions of many classical problems. This book collects papers by leading experts currently engaged in research on topics close to Maxim’s heart.

We study typical points with respect to ergofic averaging of a general dynamical system.

The present Yearbook (which is the sixth in the series) is subtitled Economy, Demography, Culture, and Cosmic Civilizations. To some extent it reveals the extraordinary potential of scientific research. The common feature of all our Yearbooks, including the present volume, is the usage of formal methods and social studies methods in their synthesis to analyze different phenomena. In other words, if to borrow Alexander Pushkin's words, ‘to verify the algebra with harmony'. One should note that publishing in a single collection the articles that apply mathematical methods to the study of various epochs and scales - from deep historical reconstruction to the pressing problems of the modern world - reflects our approach to the selection of contributions for the Yearbook. History and Mathematics, Social Studies and formal methods, as previously noted, can bring nontrivial results in the studies of different spheres and epochs. This issue consists of three main sections: (I) Historical and Technological Dimensions includes two papers (the first is about the connection between genes, myths and waves of the peopling of Americas; the second one is devoted to quantitative analysis of innovative activity and competition in technological sphere in the Middle Ages and Modern Period); (II) Economic and Cultural Dimensions (the contributions are mostly focused on modern period); (III) Modeling and Theories includes two papers with interesting models (the first one concerns modeling punctuated equilibria apparent in the macropattern of urbanization over time; in the second one the author attempts to estimate the number of Communicative Civilizations). We hope that this issue will be interesting and useful both for historians and mathematicians, as well as for all those dealing with various social and natural sciences.

The paper is devoted to the study of the unconditional extremal problem for a fractional linearintegral functional defined on a set of probability distributions. In contrast to results proved earlier,the integrands of the integral expressions in the numeratorand the denominator in the problem underconsideration depend on a real optimization parameter vector. Thus, the optimization problem isstudied on the Cartesian product of a set of probability distributions and a set of admissible values ofa real parameter vector. Three statements on the extremum ofa fractional linear integral functionalare proved. It is established that, in all the variants, the solution of the original problem is completelydetermined by the extremal properties of the test function of the linear-fractional integral functional;this function is the ratio of the integrands of the numeratorand the denominator. Possible applicationsof the results obtained to problems of optimal control of stochastic systems are described.

We consider the Hegselmann-Krause bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics. We assume that the opinion of an agent is influenced not only by other agents, but also by external random noises. The case of independent normally distributed external noises is considered. We perform computer modeling of deterministic and stochastic models. The properties of the models were analyzed and the difference in their behavior was revealed. We study the dependence of the number of a confidence clusters on the parameters of the problem such as the initial profile of opinions, the level of confidence, the variance of noise.

We study an optimal control problem for a nonlinear spherical inverted pendulum on a movable base. As the cost functional, the mean-squared deviation of the pendulum from the upper equilibrium is considered, so optimal controls stabilize the pendulum at the unstable upper position. We show that the problem under consideration posses a singular point of the second order and there are spiral-similar solution which attains the singular point in finite time.

Multiple Perron eigenvectors of non-negative matrices occur in applications, where

they often become a source of trouble. A usual way to avoid it and to make the

Perron eigenvector simple is a regularization of matrix: an initial non-negative matrix

A is replaced by A + "M, where M is a strictly positive matrix and " > 0 is small.

However, this operation is numerically unstable and may lead to a signicant increase

of the Perron eigenvalue, especially in high dimensions. We dene a selected Perron

eigenvector of A as the limit of normalized Perron eigenvectors of the regularizations

A + "M as " ! 0. It is shown that if the matrix M is rank-one, then the limit

eigenvector can be found by an explicit formula and, moreover, is eciently computed

by the power method. The role of the rank-one condition is explained.

MDS matrices are widely used as a diffusion primitive in the construction of block type encryption algorithms and hash functions (such as AES and GOST 34.12–2015). The matrices with the maximum number of 1s and minimum number of different elements are important for more efficient realizations of the matrix-vector multiplication. The article presents a new method for the MDS testing of matrices over finite fields and shows its application to the (8 × 8)-matrices of a special form with many 1s and few different elements; these matrices were introduced by Junod and Vaudenay. For the proposed method we obtain some theoretical and experimental estimates of effectiveness. Moreover, the article comprises a list of some MDS matrices of the above-indicated type.

In a previous paper, we have defined polynomial Witt vectors functor from vector spaces over a perfect field k of positive characteristic p to abelian groups. In this paper, we use polynomial Witt vectors to construct a functorial Hochschild- Witt complex WCH_∗(A) for any associative unital k-algebra A, with homology groups WHH∗(A). We prove that the group WHH_0(A) coincides with the group of non-commutative Witt vectors defined by Hesselholt, while if A is commutative, finitely generated, and smooth, the groups WHH_i(A) are naturally identified with the terms WΩ^i_A of the de Rham- Witt complex of the spectrum of A.

We show that all strongly non-degenerate trigonometric solutions of the associative Yang–Baxter equation (AYBE) can be obtained from triple Massey products in the Fukaya categories of square-tiled surfaces. Along the way, we give a classification result for cyclic A_∞-algebra structures on a certain Frobenius algebra associated with a pair of 1-spherical objects in terms of the equivalence classes of the corresponding solutions of the AYBE. As an application, combining our results with homological mirror symmetry for punctured tori (cf. [17]), we prove that any two simple vector bundles on a cycle of projective lines are related by a sequence of 1-spherical twists and their inverses.

The macroscopic model of long-term deep-bed filtration flow of a monodisperse suspension through a porous medium with size-exclusion particle-capture mechanism and without retained-particle mobilization is considered. It is assumed that the pore accessibility and the fractional particle flux depend on the deposit concentration and at the initial time the porous medium contains a nonuniformly distributed deposit. The aim of the study is to find the analytical solution in the neighborhood of a mobile curvilinear boundary, namely, of the suspended-particle concentration front. The property of having fixed sign is proved for the solution. The exact solution of the filtration problem on the curvilinear front is found in explicit form. The sufficient condition of existence of the solution on the concentration front is obtained. An asymptotic solution is constructed in the neighborhood of the front. The time interval of applicability of asymptotics is determined from the numerical solution.

We consider quantum integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing gl(N)-invariant R-matrix. We study two types of Bethe vectors. The first type corresponds to the original monodromy matrix. The second type is associated to a monodromy matrix closely related to the inverse of the monodromy matrix. We show that these two types of the Bethe vectors are identical up to normalization and reshuffling of the Bethe parameters. To prove this correspondence we use the current approach. This identity gives new combinatorial relations for the scalar products of the Bethe vectors.