Automatic Integration of Gender Information during Phrase Processing: ERP Evidence
Time reference in Indo-European languages is marked on the verb. With tensed verb forms, the speaker can refer to the past (wrote, has written), present (writes, is writing) or future (will write). Reference to the past through verb morphology has been shown to be particularly vulnerable in agrammatic aphasia (Bastiaanse, 2008; Yarbay Duman & Bastiaanse, 2009) and both agrammatic and non-brain-damaged individuals have longer RTs with verb forms referring to the past than with verb forms referring to the present (Faroqi-Shah & Dickey, 2009). It has been argued that these results are due to the discourse-linking nature of past tense (Bastiaanse et al., in press). This article reports ERP and behavioral (reaction time and acceptability rating) data on the processing of time reference violations in which verb forms do not match a time frame previously set by an adverb (present adverb – past tense verb; past adverb – present tense verb). The results show that violation by a present tense verb yields a P600 time-locked to the verb. No such response is found for violation by a past tense verb. These ERP results are similar to ERP findings on locally bound and discourse-linked pronominal processing and when related to behavioral findings on identical violations, support the claim that in present tense processing co-reference is established with the speech time (local binding), while past tense processing involves co-reference with some other event time (discourse-linking).
The general topic of this Anniversary edition of ESLP is Interdisciplinary Approaches to Embodied and Situated Cognition. ESLP 2017 will showcase new theoretical and empirical research by individuals and groups who transcend traditional research fields’ boundaries and combine research methodologies in their investigations of embodied and situated nature of linguistic and conceptual knowledge.
New complex education program "Project seminar" developed in the Department of Applied Mathematics of Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (MIEM) belong to National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) is presented. The aim of our program is to train students for needs of high-tech industry being equipped with ERP systems. The complex program based on Project-Based Learning concept supported with Business Game and practical training at the optical-electronic enterprise where students are involved in creation and implementation some modules/subsystems of ERP system. Thus students were educated in accordance with modern principles, which help them through studying and a research process to build their own learning schema and to get their training results approved by real useful application.
The causal mechanisms of spontaneous attentional performance lapses in alert non-clinical individuals during purposeful responses to complex stimuli remain largely unknown. In order to address this question, the auditory condensation task was used, which involves both stimulus feature binding and response selection. This task is known to create high attentional load and is well suited to reveal subtle variations in the level of attention. Four auditory stimuli differing in two independent features were presented randomly with equal probability. Each stimulus required pressing one or the other of two buttons; constant stimulus-to-response mapping was based exclusively on feature conjunction. Participants made errors on 10.2 ± 0.7 % and response omissions on 5.4 ± 0.5 % of trials. In the ERP pattern, the N1 and P2 peaks were well pronounced, while later N2 and P3 peaks were rather small in amplitude. The P2 amplitude was greater on trials with errors compared to correct responses, possibly reflecting reduction in the stimulus processing. Spontaneous attentional performance lapses may be tentatively explained by inadequate distribution of attentional resources due to competition with other mental processes such as mind-wandering. This competition is likely to occasionally subdue early preattentional stages of stimulus processing and thus cause behavioral errors.
A response action consists of at least two stages: initiation and execution. Recording keystrokes and button presses is the method most commonly used in the field of cognitive psychophysiology; this method provides data on response accuracy and response time, which seem to be mostly related to the initiation stage. On the contrary, mouse tracking provides continuous data on response dynamics. Particularly, we assume that mouse movement duration is an important response parameter that is related to the execution stage of the response. Here, we applied this method to probe the functional significance of the response-related event-related potential (ERP) components such as correct-related negativity (CRN) and a Pe-like positivity.
We used the condensation task, which involves complex stimulus-to-response mapping: participants had to make responses to four auditory stimuli relying on the combination of two independent stimulus features. During each trial, participants had to respond to auditory stimuli by moving a computer mouse either to the top-left or to the top-right mousepad corner. EEG was recorded during the experiment. The following parameters of mouse movement were assessed: movement initialization time and movement duration. Within each subject, we divided the trials with correct responses into four quartiles for each of the mouse movement parameters separately. We compared ERP waveforms for trials within each pair of marginal quartiles.
Both movement initialization time and movement duration were higher for errors compared to correct responses. These mouse movement parameters were uncorrelated. We found that CRN amplitude within 10-110 ms time window was higher for early correct responses compared to late ones (p=0.004). In addition, we found a significant effect of mouse movement duration on ERP in early Pe time window (120-265 ms): amplitude of the Pe-like positivity was significantly higher for long correct responses compared with short correct responses (p<0.001).
We suggest that the early Pe-like component is not specifically related to errors; rather, both CRN and Pe-like component seem to be related to response uncertainty. Particularly, uncertainty during response execution stage seems to result in increased Pe-like component and prolonged mouse movement. We also assume that early correct responses are mostly premature responses, and increased CRN may indicate stronger performance monitoring arising after response initiation.
The study was implemented in the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) in 2018.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.