The Shadow of the Family: Historical Roots of Social Capital in Europe
Kravtsova M., Oshchepkov A. Y., Welzel C.
This study provides new evidence on the impact of historic household formation patterns on present day levels of social capital (SC). We distinguish effects on bonding and bridging social capital, of which only the latter is beneficial for a society as a whole. Our results challenge the view that large household size in the past per se was responsible for institutional drawbacks of contemporary societies restricting social capital. We unveil the true processes lying behind the idea that prevalence of nuclear households fostered institutional development, testing three mechanisms through which household size may influence social capital: (a) family size in terms of the number of household members; (b) the strength of loyalty bonds within the family, and (c) generational and gendered power hierarchies within the family. Our hypotheses are explored on the basis of 26 European countries covered by the Life in Transition Survey (LiTs) in 2010. The contrast between Western and Eastern European countries in the LiTs provides a controlled environment that is free from the potentially confounding influence of European colonialism. We generate a new historical database using historical census data for 429 sub-national regions in 5 West European and 21 East European countries. Individual responses from the LiTs are attributed to the sub-national region in which the respondent lives. We find that power relations within the family have more essential consequences for contemporary values and attitudes than nuclearity/extendedness dimension. Within-family hierarchies revealed to be the strongest predictor of social capital today, indicating lower levels of bridging SC and higher level of corruption in form of monetary transfers or exchange of favors. We suggest that within-family hierarchies in the past might have affected the contemporary level of SC provoking a longstanding commitment to authority within the society. This evidence is illustrated by the significant positive correlation between the historical index of within-family hierarchy and autocracy preference as measured on LiTs data. Societal commitment to authority rooted in historical family pattern might have prevented generalized trust formation and fostered vertical patron-client relations, favoritism and corruption. Our results may drive further research from concentrating on family extendedness (nuclearity) as a predictor of the current state of modernization towards using more meaningful indicators of within-family hierarchies.
Research target: Sociology (including Demography and Anthropology
Priority areas: sociology
, , , Post-Soviet Affairs 2017 Vol. 33 No. 5 P. 411-429
Few tasks are more important in the post-communist setting than rebuilding the welfare state. We study individual preferences for increasing social welfare spending to reduce inequality. Using two surveys of about 34,000 and 37,000 Russians we show great importance of the bridging type of social capital for redistribution preferences in Russia as it precludes possibilities ...
Added: June 7, 2017
Взаимосвязь социального капитала и аккультурационных ожиданий эстонцев в Эстонии: воспринимаемая угроза как медиатор
, Культурно-историческая психология 2021 Т. 17 № 4 С. 74-82
This study examines the mediating role of perceived threat from other ethnic groups in the relationship between social capital and acculturation expectations of the host population. Consistent with Stefan's theory, the article examined the impact of three types of perceived threat: economic, cultural, and physical. The sample consists of ethnic Estonians born and living in ...
Added: October 29, 2021
, , Мониторинг общественного мнения: Экономические и социальные перемены 2022 № 1 С. 307-327
Despite the growing interest in the study of social capital in Russia and abroad, approaches to its measurement are still cause a controversial.The task of constructing the generalized indicators that measure the volume of the social capital in general or its different types looks the most difficult. At the same time, it is necessary to ...
Added: March 21, 2022
, , Islamic Quarterly 2019 Vol. 63 No. 3 P. 427-452
In the paper Islamism is described as a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional, changing and inconsistent phenomenon. Islamism possesses many levels and manifestations. It is impossible to comprehend modern Muslim (and all the more Arab) societies without an account of the impact of Islam as simultaneously an ideology, cultural environment, modus agenda and mode of life. It would ...
Added: December 3, 2020
, Вопросы образования 2012 № 2 С. 68-86
It is shown in an empirical study in which Russians and representatives of the North Caucasus nations (Chechens, Balkarians, Ossetians) took part that on the whole social capital is related to tenets of the so-called productive economic behaviour patterns. This is a common phenomenon for representatives of both cultures under study. But a number of ...
Added: September 12, 2012
Post-socialist agricultural cooperatives in Russia: a case study of top-down cooperatives in the Belgorod region
, , Post-Communist Economies 2017 Vol. 29 No. 2 P. 158-181
Through a study of agricultural service cooperatives in Russia’s Belgorod region, this article addresses two gaps in the literature: first, the dearth of empirical studies on cooperatives in post-socialist Russia; second, the lack of attention to top-down cooperatives in the global literature, and the overly negative approach to the topic in the few extant studies. ...
Added: February 16, 2017
"Я же не овощ, который сидит за компом и жалуется на власть, я - гражданин". Анализ мотивации и гендерных особенностей участия молодежи в протестных акциях 2017 года
, Неприкосновенный запас. Дебаты о политике и культуре 2018 Т. 119 № 3 С. 153-168
The paper analyzes the motivation of Moscow youth to participate in protest actions , using a survey of 40 interveiw with young participants of protest action 26 March 2017 and 60 formalized interview with young participants of protest action 12 Yune 2017. Еhe analysis of what is connected with their dissatisfaction with the situation in the country, how do they ...
Added: October 30, 2018
Гормоны и перспективы: психологические и эндокринные показатели хронической тревоги и стресса у школьников и студентов "трех Россий"
, , et al., Вестник Пермского федерального исследовательского центра 2015 № 4 С. 97-105
The aim of the study is to describe the complex psychological and endocrine characteristics of stress reaction in groups of schoolchildren and students living in places with different degrees of urbanization. The study involved 983 students and schoolchildren from Moscow, Perm, Kudymkar, and settlement Beloevo (Perm Krai). The results: 1) the transition to university has ...
Added: April 28, 2020
, , Социология: Теория, методы, маркетинг 2014 № 2 С. 48-60
Social pessimism of population, caused by the process of transformation of post-Soviet society, is considered as one of the barriers to modernization. This socio-cultural phenomenon is studied on the basis of comparative analysis of sociological surveys in the regions of Siberian Federal District, compared with the situation in Russia. It is shown that social pessimism ...
Added: March 19, 2014
L. : Pluto Press, 2005
The Global Corruption Report (GCR) is one of Transparency International’s flagship publications, bringing the expertise of the anti‐corruption movement to bear on a specific corruption issue. Most recent reports have focused on corruption in climate change, the private sector, water and the judiciary. The report highlights cutting edge qualitative and quantitative research, gathers knowledge on ...
Added: June 20, 2014
, Общественные науки и современность 2012 № 3 С. 5-21
The author continues a theme begun in previous issue (see N. Tikhonovas article in Social Sciences Today, 2012, № 2). Feature of is standard-valuable system of the Russian society is shown. Actors of steady blocks of norms and values from consecutive traditionalists to nemodernists, the Russian modernists and postmodernists are discussed. Valuable preferences of two ...
Added: December 13, 2012
NY : Routledge, 2012
This book seeks to “re-think democracy.” Over the past years, there has been a tendency in the global policy community and, even more widely, in the world’s media, to focus on democracy as the “gold standard” by which all things political are measured. This book re-examines democracy in Russia and in the world more generally, ...
Added: December 10, 2012
, , , Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2017 Vol. 48 No. 2 P. 225-242
Using World Values Survey data from several dozen countries around the world, this article analyzes the relationship between postmaterialist values and bribery (dis)approval in a multilevel framework. We find that people, who place stronger emphasis on postmaterialist values, tend to justify bribery more. However, the “ecological” effect of postmaterialism operates in the exactly opposite direction: ...
Added: November 16, 2016
, , Демографическое обозрение 2021 Т. 8 № 2 С. 95-127
The paper studies the dynamics of age at first marriage for indigenous peoples of the North Caucasus from the second half of the 20th through the early 21st century. We focus on interethnic differences in age at first marriage, attempting to assess them at different stages of the social modernization which took place in the ...
Added: August 3, 2021
, , et al., Экономическая социология 2014 Т. 15 № 1 С. 61-88
Corruption as social phenomenon is studied by a variety of disciplines ― anthropology, criminology, development theory, economics, political science, psychology, sociology. Each of them has developed its own scientific traditions associated with different methods of collecting and analyzing empirical data, such as participant observation in anthropology or sociological interviews.In this paper we describe experimental methods, ...
Added: June 7, 2015
Ключевые проблемы модернизации России и Китая: направления сравнительных исследований. Вводное выступление за «круглым столом» - «Модернизация в России и Китае в сравнительной перспективе»
, Российская история 2012 № 3 С. 45-48
Данная публикация материалов российско-китайского Круглого стола посвящена актуальным проблемам модернизации в двух странах в истории и современности. Показаны возможности сопоставления «военного коммунизма» и «большого скачка», технологий построения индустриального общества и становления политических режимов. ...
Added: December 1, 2012
О причинах восприятия местных органов власти как наиболее коррумпированных властных и общественных институтов современной России
, Власть 2019 № 6 С. 77-86
The author of the article answers the question why it is widely views that local authorities are the most corrupt level of public power. In his opinion, the reason for this is the negative attitude towards local authorities, characterized by a critically low level of trust. The peculiarity of the relationship between ordinary people and local ...
Added: November 30, 2020
, , ЭТАП: экономическая теория, анализ, практика 2010 № 5 С. 139-154
The article considers various approaches to the theory of human and social capital, analyzes the problem of measurement of human resources and application of "Human Development Index" in the Russian Federation. Under market economy conditions the human capital is considered as an asset bringing regular income. ...
Added: November 5, 2012
, Финансы и бизнес 2010 № 1 С. 6-20
Рассматриваются существующие методы моделирования влияния на экономическое поведение моральных норм и обосновывается целесообразность их расширения путем учета их потенциальной роли в координации экономических взаимодействий и много# мерности моральных характеристик экономических агентов. В качестве иллюстрации применения такого подхода предлагается модель рынка коррупционных услуг с образованием коррупционных коалиций, основой которых служат локальные коллективные моральные нормы. ...
Added: October 20, 2012
, , Does Social Capital Have Economic Payoff in Russia? / Высшая школа экономики. Series WP10 "Научные доклады Института институциональных исследований". 2011. No. 01.
In a number of studies social capital is shown to have substantial positive impact on economic development, institutional performance, and quality of governance. So far no such analyses were available for Russia, and the present paper is intended to fill this gap. We propose a model which differentiates the impact on economic welfare of bridging ...
Added: November 29, 2012
, Мониторинг общественного мнения: Экономические и социальные перемены 2015 № 128 С. 66-95
Abstract. Over more than ten years, Russia has been at the top of the list of the OECD countries by traffic-related death rate per 1000 residents. The death rate in Russia is five- to six-fold greater than in most of the developed countries, given that the number of cars per 1000 residents is much lower. ...
Added: September 18, 2015
, Социологические исследования 2015 № 1 С. 55-63
Data of all-Russian surveys carried out in 2013 and 2014 by the Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences permitted to look into norms and values of Russian middle class, its views on the desirable vector of country's development. Values that guide middle class members in their everyday life are of modernized activist kind, a ...
Added: September 9, 2015
, , , Corruption and social values: Do postmaterialists justify bribery? / Высшая школа экономики. Series SOC "Sociology". 2014. No. 34.
Using World Values Survey data from dozens of countries around the world, this article analyzes the relationship between postmaterialist values and attitudes towards bribery in a multi-level framework. This is an inherently interesting and under-researched topic because the various propensities attributed to postmaterialism lead to conflicting expectations about how these values affect attitudes towards bribery. ...
Added: January 24, 2014
, М. : Институт психологии РАН, 2014
В монографии представлено новое направление в современной психологии – исследования социально-психологического капи- тала личности (СПКЛ). Впервые предлагается трактовка понятия «социально-психологический капитал личности», рассматрива- ется его соотношение с другими близкими психологическими понятиями, а также с иными формами капитала. Анализируется структура социально-психологического капитала и связь данно- го явления с социально-экономическим поведением личности, в частности, с предпринимательским. Специальное ...
Added: November 29, 2014