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Working paper

The Problem of Social Inclusion and Evaluation of Adult Literacy in Russia

In the paper Russian results of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competency (PIAAC) are analyzed and compared to the data from the OECD countries. In the focus of the research is the concept of “participation in society” proposed by the developers of the PIAAC. The results show that “social inclusion” and “success” measured in the PIAAC through peoples’ individual achievements are not always connected with high level of competence in Russia. There is a large proportion of people in the group of respondents with the lowest level of literacy, who are “included” and “successful” (at least according to formal criteria). This distinguishes Russia from the OECD countries with developed economies.