The Problem of Social Inclusion and Evaluation of Adult Literacy in Russia
Development of the human capital of modern adult population in many respects identified by the level of attained education. Educational projects of OECD, and in particular the PIAAC (The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies), shows considerable influence of achievements in core competencies on follow-up professional activity, including specialists of working professions, that have gained primary secondary vocational education degree.
An important component of these surveys is the assessment of competencies, i.e. the students’ ability to apply their knowledge and skills in non-standard situations, including those new to them professionally and found in everyday life, as well as the assessment of factors which contribute to the competency level. The article describes the methodology of the projects, the materials used for testing, the structure of the sample and whether a particular project has been implemented in the Russian Federation.
The outcomes of the review allowed us to conclude that for Russia, participating in large-scale international research educational surveys is a must. Among reasons for participation are the inclusion of Russian data into international databases and an opportunity for comparative studies and further analysis. These activities will help understand the strengths and weaknesses of the education system in Russia, assess its opportunities and threats, and apply the best international practices and experience in the modernization of the education sector. By learning from the outcomes of the above-mentioned surveys, Russia will be able to act more effectively in developing and using the relevant
competencies, involving people of all ages in education, popularizing lifelong learning to achieve the supply and demand equilibrium in the quality and quantity of various types of professionalized labour force.
The aging of the Russian population and the rapid shrinking of its labor force in coming decades will make the human capital each worker contributes increasingly vital for sustaining economic output and growth. While improvements in general education are necessary to build the foundation for a productive future labor force, a broad-based and effective system of adult education can provide second-chance opportunities for current workers to enhance their productivity and lengthen their working lives and for low-skilled immigrants to be integrated into the workforce. How well the Russian Federation addresses these multiple needs at and beyond the workplace will depend on how effective its adult education system is. This study targeting policymakers outlines the problems of Russia's growing skills gap, especially the shortage of higher-order cognitive and socio-emotional skills, and examines the current state of adult education.
This paper is dedicated to the initiation and implementation of large-scale surveys in education field at different educational and age levels. In order to determine the feasibility of such surveys and their importance for the subsequent analysis of the obtained data, the authors reviewed the concept of "evaluation" and "assessment." The analysis of existing researches allowed to submit a classification of large-scale surveys on the basis of which different school surveys and their implementation in the Russian Federation were reviewed (PISA, PIRLS, TIMMS). The design features of such surveys are not only the data collection of the test results but also the collection of the context information. Moreover such results give an oppurtunity to look at the data on the international level, the successfulness of the country education policy, the population capabilities, the gaps in education process and activities and the competencies distribution among the population. The competencies here mean a person's ability to apply his/her knowledge in a variety of (new, unknown or familiar) contexts and real-life situations. The implementation of competency-based approach in forming the national education policy, the necessity of competencies forming and development are very important components for full inclusion in education sector at the national and international levels.
The author’s views on the essence of educational objectives and outcomes, on their interrelation in the area of general education, on specifics of pedagogical goal-setting, on the structure of the hierarchical system of educational objectives have been forming throughout almost 60 years of professional educational work. He represents common objectives of school education as a three-level system: development of the ability to choose some lifestyle that is appropriate to the current society development trends; shaping the experience of solving cognitive, communicative and other problems relevant to students without assistance; learning of work methods that are applicable to school practice and beyond it.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.