Who Demands Collective Action In An Imperfect Institutional Environment? A Case-Study Of The Professional Community Of Attorneys In Russia
In this study we compare ethical values of Russian law students and professional lawyers. We focus on the problem of choosing between personal benefits and professional responsibility, as well as on the transformations of ethical values between university and the bar. In two studies using a single methodology we have surveyed 282 law student in three Russian universities and 372 lawyer from 9 regions of Russia. At the moment this is the only study in Russia, which allows us to compare the views of law students and professional lawyers, and find out at what point the idea about dominance of personal benefit over professional responsibility established. We conclude that the reasons for the differences in professional ethics are rooted in the system of legal education.
The article reveals the issues of advocate’s activity in criminal procedure; considers the basic ethic problems — accept of assignment, alternative defense, conflicts defense. The article analyses the provisions of the Code of Professional Ethics, opinions of some researchers, provisions of legislation; the article also touches upon the issues of general ethics.
The paper focuses on the analysis of professional/occupational groups that are depended more than others on the support of the state for their prosperity. We consider approaches to the definition of the methods of this support, principles and models of interaction of the state and professional/occupational groups in the processes of professionalization. A significant influence of historical and social context requires not only sociological but also institutional approach for the analysis as well as appropriate institutional concepts. Institutional isomorphism approach and an institutional matrices theory are applied in the paper to investigate interaction between the state and professional groups, with conditions and prospects of their interconnections. Empirical data about professional associations in Russian engineering sphere is presented.
Adversary proceedings are impossible without precise observation of their regalement by all participants of judicial proceeding. The obligation to maintain order in judicial proceeding is laid upon the chairman. No abidance by the advocate to decisions and instructions of the chairman is a violation of requirements of the Criminal Procedure Code of the RF.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.