«Мигрант» и «миграция» по данным словарей и лингвистических корпусов русского, чешского и немецкого языков
The topic of the article reflects the relationship to the concepts of "migration" and "worker" in Russia, the Czech Republic and in German-speaking countries over the past 30 years. Frequency of use of these words is confirmed by the fact that migration is a very difficult and complex problem to solve. Language is sensitive to changes in society, it fix all social, economic, political and cultural aspects of the problem, and reflect new semantics, connotation of words, lexical compatibility. The article described the Russian, Czech and German associations connected with these realities.
The subject matter of the article is the EU immigration policy applied to third country nationals (TCN). The main aspects of the policy are considered: humanitarian policy, national security policy, and various legal tools of its implementation. In particular the author considers the 1951 Geneva Convention and 1967 New York Protocol relating to the status of refugees, the clauses of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU regulating «area of freedom, security and justice» (title V), Schengen Conventions, the related acts of the EU secondary law. As to the humanitarian aspect of the EU immigration policy, its moral essence - the respect for human dignity is emphasized. The national security measures are directed mainly against illegal immigration. Finally the author comes to the conclusion that EU humanitarian efforts in the immigration policy proved to be more effective than the security one.
Our research aims at automatic identification of constructions associated with particular lexical items and its subsequent use in building the catalogue of Russian lexical constructions. The study is based on the data extracted from the Russian National Corpus (RNC, http://ruscorpora.ru). The main accent is made on extensive use of morphological and lexico-semantic data drawn from the multi-level corpus annotation. Lexical constructions are regarded as the most frequent combinations of a target word and corpus tags which regularly occur within a certain left and/or right context and mark a given meaning of a target word. We focus on nominal constructions with target lexemes that refer to speech acts, emotions, and instruments. The toolkit that processes corpus samples and learns up the constructions is described. We provide analysis for the structure and content of extracted constructions (e.g. r:ord der:num t:ord r:qual|pervyj ‘first’ + LJUBOV’ ‘love’; LJUBOV’ ‘love’ + PR|s ‘from’ + ANUM m sg gen|pervyj ‘first’ + S f inan sg gen|vzgljad ‘sight’ = love at first sight). As regards their structure, constructions may be considered as n-grams (n is 2 to 5). The representation of constructions is bipartite as they may combine either morphological and lemma tags or lexical-semantic and lemma tags. We discuss the use of visualization module PATTERN.GRAPH that represents the inner structure of extracted constructions.
The twenty-seven volume of the series "International Migration of Population: Russia and Contemporary World" is a collection of papers submitted to the Session 06-03 "The effects of migration on areas of destination" of the XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference *26031 August 2013, South Korea, Busan). The session deals with major international migration trends, increasing role of international migration in the demographic development of receiving countries.
The authors are responsible for the reliability of data and other materials used. The series is both of scientific and educational character and can be accordingly used in teaching process.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.