Применение литографических технологий для обработки генетической информации в молекулах ДНК и РНК
Nanotechnology allows scientists, engineers and physicians to move to large-scale research in the field of biology and public health at the cellular level and the molecular level. These studies will lead to new biotechnological production processes, as well as to the fundamental changes in the methods of medicine.  The use of the device forming the topological structure of a microchip on the substrate allows for the possibility to create a thumbnail template (using methods to increase the resolution of the projection lithography is proposed to obtain the elements of design rules with no more than 32 nm), the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation λ 193 nm. An example is the lead device "supply" of the body of drugs at the right time (Fig. 2). The device is a self-contained, miniature (solid-state silicon chip), implantable mechanism able to allocate according to a program contained in it is a substance (or substances). Clearly, such a mechanism may serve other functions (diagnostics, chemical analysis, etc.).  In the past few years, scientists have developed a technology rapid mapping of genetic information in DNA and RNA molecules, including the identification of mutations and expression levels. This technology uses a matrix of DNA microarrays, which is similar to the lithographic patterning technology for the industrial production of integrated circuits . Currently, these types of technologies become commercial importance and are used in biotechnology research and production processes. Development of new types of chemical matrices will expand the capabilities of these technologies and apply them in biological information processing apparatus or for analysis of proteins and other biomolecules. Miniaturization of devices based on related analytical processes, including electrophoresis, the reach of such technology and reduce the cost of many important analytical techniques, such as DNA sequencing or a fingerprint.
We consider dense toroidal structures of DNA molecules in cells and viruses. The problem needs special studying. For one thing the space scale of the system being small one has to admit that such structures must be compact enough to accommodate a molecule of the DNA, for another the molecule should be easily accessible for various biochemical processes, for example replication. Theoretical treatment of the problem runs across substantial diculties, and there- fore there is a need for the experimental investigation of the DNA conformation in cells and viruses. The XFEL could be instrumental to that end.