Сберегательные стратегии среднего класса
A period of qualitative changes in Russia has led to the transformation of many social aspects, including the social structure. Unsurprisingly, its specific features and certain social groups and strata are of particular interest at the moment. Both the scientific community and the general public are traditionally interested in the social entity of middle class. The term “middle class”, however, does not have a universal definition. Its meaning has been changing along with the social development and social structure transformations, depending on the historical context of a society. Moreover, several conceptually different approaches to identifying the middle class were emerging separately (due to the fact that middle class analysis was based on different goals and objectives that required different methodologies). In Russia, there is ongoing theoretical debate over the necessary and sufficient conditions for classifying an individual or a household as middle-class. Arguments for existence of the middle class in the country are quite often completely different as a result of diverse approaches and respective criteria, as well as the chosen thresholds, for identifying the sought-for middle class. Differences in the methodology of middle class identification lead to a considerable spread in the estimates of its share, from 2-3% to at least half of the population. Chapter presents different approaches to middle class definition, brief history of middle class studies in Russia and main results concerning specifics of Russian middle class from different research studies.
This article deals with the important issues of adults and schoolchildren financial literacy development. The authors explore possible ways for development of financial literacy of schoolchildren as well as potential development tendency of financial education in the context of dynamically developing information environment. The introduction describes the importance of developing the financial literacy of people (starting from school age), immediacy of the problem in connection with education modernization in the face of intensively changing information environment. Importance of this topic is associated with the need for students to acquire knowledge and practical skills in financial markets functioning and regulation, financial methods, and economy instruments aimed at ensuring effective interaction of citizens with the economic institutions of society. Some of author's tasks are presented for monitoring the achievements of students and determining their skills to navigate in the economic space, making optimal decisions in life situations to avoid financial risks. The study results allow us to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of methods and tools for implementing special programs to increase financial literacy and financial sustainability of the population. The study may be of interest for graduate students, methodologists, teachers of secondary schools, secondary specialized institutions, and universities in the relevant areas.
The urgency and purpose. Low level of financial capability is an actual problem of modern society. This problem directly effects on economic and social growth. Russian and foreign companies confirm that Russians have a low level of financial capability. Based on the Standard&Poors research findings was identified that only 38% of Russians have a high level of financial capability. The evaluation of real life issues in Russia and foreign countries shows that raising of financial capability level should have a complex approach. Within the frame of current research the site ProFin was developed. The goal of site is to increase people's financial capability. The site was tested on the target group and on potential group of users. Based on the test results there were defined pros and cons of the site and some recommendations for improving site were declared too. The purpose of this study – the development of tools to improve the financial literacy.
Methods. The research was designed website "ProFin" to improve the financial literacy of the population. Website Modeling was performed on the Wix platform - software for creating and designing websites.
Results. Website "ProFin" includes all the main sections of the site: home page, news and contacts. Unique sections "ProFin" Web Site are: analytical unit "Comparison of banks," which allows users to compare the financial performance of commercial banks. The section "Helpful Hints" provides important useful information to existing or future users of banking products and services. The website also posted an interactive calendar of events, allowing website users to know about the events and seminars on financial literacy in the lives’ region.
Conclusions. This tool has been tested on the target groups and potential users of the portal. According to the test results were identified advantages and disadvantages of the portal, as well as recommendations on further development of the website.