Персональность и субъективная модальность как ведущие категории теологических статей (на материале немецкого языка)
This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
It analyses polysemantic terms the subject, the personality, the selfhood and which form sincrets for example subjectivity of selfhood and etc. It reconstructs interpretation of these terms by G.G. Shpet, S.L. Rubinshtein, B.M. Teplov, A.N. Leontiev, etc. It affirms that the main theme of psychological investigation is the personality. On the ontological plane we have two ways of personality: down - to the subject - to a function or to collection of functions, to subject; and up - to the selfhood - to an ideal, to the limit of self-construction, to spirituality and freedom.
The paper analyzes the dynamics of psychological views of Alexander F. Lazurski (1874-1917), the author of one of the first personality theories in the world psychology. In Lazurzki’s work two successive stages can be distinguished, one of them connected with the problem of character as inner individual-typological basis of personality, and the second is characterized by the introduction and intensive elaboration of the idea of attitudes to the outside world as important components of the personality structure. Lazurski’s place in the world psychology of personality is highlighted.