The focus of the study is the relationship between personality development and mechanisms of self-reflection and inner dialogue. Our understanding is based on J. Loevinger’s (1976) theory of ego development stages and D. Leontiev’s (2009) differential self-reflection model. 262 participants of student summer school in Russia (age from 14 to 25 (M=20.03, SD=3.92) were tested on a battery of measurement scales, including: (1). Modified P. Oles’ Inner Dialogical Activity Scale; (2). Differential Self-Reflection Inventory; (3). Russian version of J. Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test. Systemic reflection and Openness to experience showed significant linear dependencies on Ego Development level. Systemic reflection manifested as a partial mediator of the link between Openness to experience and level of Ego development. The contribution of inner dialogue became visible from the Stage E5 (Selfawareness) on, while below this level self-reflection mechanisms were neither differentiated nor associated with inner dialogical activity.
The article is aimed to confute the belief held about the nature of the world view of Marcus Aurelius as pessimistic. The analysis of “Meditations” demonstrates that the text represents a dialogue between a stoic sage and an ordinary man, Marcus Aurelius being in the guise of both. The article proves that the guidance of the philosopher king is positive in its nature, calling one to fulfill manfully their duties aimed at the welfare of the World and Rome while manifesting love to people and showing no fear of failure, suffering or death.
In the article we provided a theoretical and practical analysis of the main factors of personal effectiveness as the ability to achieve the intended results at the lowest cost. We investigated general psychological mechanisms of its formation. The ability to choose the constructive meaning of significant events and phenomena, and maintain optimal emotional background are determined as the basic components of personal effectiveness.