Comparative Analysis of Formation of Industry 4.0 in Developed and Developing Countries
The purpose of the article is to perform comparative analysis of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed and developing countries. As peculiarities of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed countries have been studied in this book in the process of studying successful experience of formation of Industry 4.0 in the countries of the world, the authors focus on determining the specifics of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries. In order to ensure compatibility of data for developed and developing countries, the similar methods are used—which are based on the authors’ methodological recommendations for monitoring the process of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries in 2017 and evaluating effectiveness of Industry 4.0 from the point of view of stimulation of development of knowledge economy in developing countries. During comparison of results of research of the essence and peculiarities of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed and developing countries, the method of comparative analysis is used. For determining the barriers on the path of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, the authors use the method of systemic and problem analysis. For complex study of specifics of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, the objects are the countries that are peculiar for various levels of socio-economic development and belonging to various geographical regions of the world: the South African Republic, China, India, and Brazil. As a result of the research, it is substantiated that the process of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries has its peculiarities and is different than in developed countries. As compared to developed countries, in which the process of formation of Industry 4.0 was started earlier and aimed at marketing and social results, developing countries face institutional (absence of state policy of formation of Industry 4.0) and financial barriers and seek economic goals. At the same time, the initiative approach to formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, within which the initiators of this process are economic subjects (companies), envisages larger flexibility and effectiveness as compared to the directive approach (state initiative), which is applied in developed countries. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019.