Industry 4.0: Industrial Revolution of the 21st Century
This book addresses a wide range of issues relating to the theoretical substantiation of the necessity of Industry 4.0, the development of the methodological tools for its analysis and evaluation, and practical solutions for effectively managing this process. It particularly focuses on solving the problem of optimizing the development of Industry 4.0 in the context of knowledge economy formation.
The book presents the authors’ approach to studying the process of Industry 4.0 formation in connection with knowledge economy, and approach that allows the process to be studied in connection with the existing socio-economic and technological conditions. As a result, the conclusions and recommendations could be applied to modern economic systems and do not require any further elaboration.
The presented research is based on modern economic theory scientific and methodological tools, including the tools of the theory of economic cycles, the theory of games, and the institutional economic theory. Raising awareness of the problem of Industry 4.0 formation, the book is of interest to a wide audience, including not only specialists and experts with a detailed knowledge of the topic, but also scholars, lecturers, and undergraduates of various fields of economics
The purpose of the work is to study the possibilities of formation of Industry 4.0 as a new vector of growth and development of knowledge economy by the example of modern Russia and to develop recommendations for their practical implementation. For this, the method of dynamics (horizontal and trend) analysis of time rows and correlation analysis are used. The indicator of development of knowledge economy is the corresponding index that is prepared by the World Bank. The vectors of growth and development of knowledge economy are share of innovations-active companies in the structure of entrepreneurship, number of developed completely new leading production technologies, and share of high-tech spheres in economy (as the indicator of development of the sphere of science and education) according to the Federal State Statistics Service. The author shows that knowledge economy, which was developing dynamically at the initial stage of its formation, has slowed down. The existing growth vectors—innovational entrepreneurship, high-tech spheres of economy, and the sphere of science and education—have depleted their potential and cannot ensure its further development. It is necessary to look for such vectors, of which the most perspective is Industry 4.0, as formation of Industry 4.0 leads to growth of knowledge economy: innovational development, increase of the values of indicators of socio-economic development of economic system, and increase of the role of intellectual component of economy—the sphere of science and education. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019.
The purpose of the article is to study the transformation changes in the system of professional competences of modern specialist in the conditions of knowledge economy’s formation and formation of Industry 4.0 and to develop the innovational approach to its study and preparation. Methodology of this approach is based on application of competence-based approach to education and learning, the method of compiling a map of competences of a modern specialist, and the method of graphic interpretation of authors’ conclusions and recommendations (the method of data formalization). As a result of studying the structure and logic of organization of the educational services market and labor market by the example of modern Russia, it is concluded that a narrow specialization of employees is in demand. Business processes of modern Russian companies are strictly differentiated; ordinary employees, innovators, and technical specialists are separated. In the conditions of knowledge economy’s formation and formation of Industry 4.0, wide specialization of employees will be in demand. As production functions will be automatized, the number of companies’ employees will be reduced, and each employees will have to conform to requirements from all three categories. Transition to new requirements to a modern specialist in the conditions of knowledge economy’s formation and formation of Industry 4.0 will be related to transformation changes in the system of his professional competences. We compiled a map of professional competences of a modern specialist in the conditions of knowledge economy’s formation and formation of Industry 4.0 and distinguished three main professional competences, which a production specialist should possess in the conditions of knowledge economy and Industry 4.0: competence of generation of innovations, computer programming, and digital thinking. According to the above transformation changes in the system of professional competences of a modern specialist in the conditions of knowledge economy’s formation and formation of Industry 4.0, it is necessary to pass from narrow specialization of specialists’ training to creation of wide specialization of employees. For that, an innovational approach (Fig. 1) to teaching and training of a modern specialist in the conditions of knowledge economy’s formation and formation of Industry 4.0 is presented. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019
The purpose of the article is to perform comparative analysis of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed and developing countries. As peculiarities of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed countries have been studied in this book in the process of studying successful experience of formation of Industry 4.0 in the countries of the world, the authors focus on determining the specifics of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries. In order to ensure compatibility of data for developed and developing countries, the similar methods are used—which are based on the authors’ methodological recommendations for monitoring the process of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries in 2017 and evaluating effectiveness of Industry 4.0 from the point of view of stimulation of development of knowledge economy in developing countries. During comparison of results of research of the essence and peculiarities of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed and developing countries, the method of comparative analysis is used. For determining the barriers on the path of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, the authors use the method of systemic and problem analysis. For complex study of specifics of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, the objects are the countries that are peculiar for various levels of socio-economic development and belonging to various geographical regions of the world: the South African Republic, China, India, and Brazil. As a result of the research, it is substantiated that the process of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries has its peculiarities and is different than in developed countries. As compared to developed countries, in which the process of formation of Industry 4.0 was started earlier and aimed at marketing and social results, developing countries face institutional (absence of state policy of formation of Industry 4.0) and financial barriers and seek economic goals. At the same time, the initiative approach to formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, within which the initiators of this process are economic subjects (companies), envisages larger flexibility and effectiveness as compared to the directive approach (state initiative), which is applied in developed countries. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019.
The purpose of this chapter is to determine fundamental differences of transition to Industry 4.0 from previous industrial revolutions. The methodology includes structural & functional analysis, comparative analysis, induction, deduction, formalization, etc. These methods are used for determining similarities with previous industrial revolutions and peculiarities of the future Fourth Industrial Revolution. The authors prove that transition to Industry 4.0 is a new industrial revolution, which is shown by the attributes that are a sign of all industrial revolutions: change of the type of technological mode as a result of mass implementation of accumulated industrial innovations and systemic transformations in industry, which results in deep changes in logistics and manufactured products. At the same time, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is unprecedented and possesses a whole range of peculiarities, as compared to previous industrial revolutions. It envisages full elimination of human from the production system, ensuring absolute automatization of the production process, simultaneous combination of formation of global industrial networks with elimination of negative social consequences, changes the essence of industrial patents, and creates a possibility for quick change of direction of industrial production’s specialization. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019
The authors formulate the concept of Industry 4.0 within the modern economic theory and determine the fundamental provisions of the concept of knowledge economy. Also, the scientiﬁc and methodological approach to studying Industry 4.0 in the conditions of knowledge economy on the basis of the theory of economic growth is substantiated. The authors determine the main stages of formation of Industry 4.0 and the key indicators of its development and offer the criteria of evaluation of effectiveness of Industry 4.0 from the point of view of stimulating the development of knowledge economy.
The authors analyze the accumulated experience of formation and development of Industry 4.0 in the economic practice of different countries and systematize successful experience of formation of Industry 4.0. Also, potential future outlines of knowledge economy with developed or dominating Industry 4.0 are determined, and priorities of development of Industry 4.0 in modern economic systems that are characterized by different progresses in the sphere of knowledge economy formation are offered and substantiated.