Неофициальные группы советских школьников 1940—1960-х годов: типология, идеология, практики
The article deals with unofficial teenagers’ “organizations” appeared in the USSR in 1940–1960s. Author analyses how adolescents’ psychology, Soviet culture (Russian history teaching, fiction and cinema) and official political life forms (communist party, Komsomol) influenced on discursive and pragmatic appearance of youth political protest. Transformation of the official Soviet discourse on adolescents is another issue of the article. Conception of the puberty direct worth dismissed the taboo on it (C.Kelly) in the early 1960s. It manifested not only in new initiatives of soviet pedagogues but also in Soviet justice. Punitive measures not connected with imprisonment were primary applied to teenagers although for decades before it adolescents were condemned equally with adults.
Main focus of this article is on narrative representation of the school discipline (student resistance, incompliance and conflicts with teachers) in Russian school folklore and official school documents in the second half of the 20th century. Two genres of school jokes (written and oral), school rules and official lists of allowed punishments were compared. Concept of discipline is operationalized as disciplinary episodes depicting student infringements or disciplinary acts (punishments) taken by teachers. Distribution of infringements and punishments among studied genres and genre differences in perspective on the same disciplinary episodes discover subtle borders between official and unofficial view on discipline in Soviet school. Also I suggest several semantic categories, guiding narrative representation of school discipline: isomorphism of disciplinary and schooling processes, risk involved in initiating disciplinary conflict, connection between discipline and everyday school routine, internal structure of disciplinary system (hierarchy of punishments).
Author discusses the most important and controversial issues associated with the project of educational standards for high school: a paradigm shift from "vseobuch" to "actionism", the need for teacher retraining, the changing nature of public control over the school and also the question of when new standards should be the implemented. Special attention is paid to the basic curriculum: subjects studied at a basic or advanced level; the need to reduce the number of existing subjects; rationality of the choice of subjects, which are assumed to be compulsory by the standards. Author also notices that one of the strengths of the new standards is moral and personal development of students.
Was konstituiert universitäre Praxis in ihrem alltäglichen praktischen Tun – sei es im Rahmen ‚primärer Interaktionsformate‘ (wie etwa Seminare oder Vorlesungen) oder in anderen institutionalisierten Kontexten (wie z.B. Beratungsgespräche oder Sprechstunden)? Die Beiträge dieses Bandes gehen dieser Frage nach, indem sie die je lokalen Handlungslogiken von Praktiken rekonstruieren, in denen universitäre Ausbildung stattfindet. Sie untersuchen u.a. die spezifische Kultur universitärer Seminarkommunikation, Praktiken der Gruppenarbeit im Fallseminar, die Interaktionsspezifik universitärer Sprechstunden und mündlicher Prüfungen sowie studentische Praktiken der Prüfungsvorbereitung.
In the present study proposes to consider the social status of a relatively small group of people of Korean nationality, residing in the territory of the USSR. As human activity is multifunctional, and then in the Korean community have been various social strata and status. According to the criteria of social status: status in employment, due to the power structures, income (size and shape), the social status of Russian-speaking Koreans in Russia for 150 years has changed several times.
In the period from 1937 to 1991, the Soviet Koreans have actively participated in the construction of the Soviet state. Along with all the peoples of the USSR, they restored the destruction of the war, develop science and technology, mastered the virgin lands. Special role belongs to the Koreans in agriculture, the invaluable contribution made by them in its development.
During the difficult years of the 1940-1960 Soviet Koreans were able to consolidate, unite to overcome all the hardships and tribulations. Only mutual assistance and patience to each other helped them to survive and not to dwell on the results achieved. In the Soviet Union, more than 200 Koreans were awarded the title "Hero of Socialist Labor" and the Order of Lenin. Despite the official ban on the mobilization of ethnic minorities to the front during the Great Patriotic War, 372 Koreans fought, received medals for bravery and courage.
Between 1970 and 1991. characteristic of creative work, increasing the well-being of all Soviet Koreans, it was promoted interference of two cultures, Korean and Russian. Invaluable influence of Russian culture, the Soviet government, thereby Koreans in the Soviet Union, like all Soviet citizens had the opportunity to receive free not only secondary, but also higher education, receive medical and other forms of social assistance. On the other hand, they were able to maintain such a Korean national character traits as diligence, tolerance, particularly relating to education.
This work sanctifies the features of social adaptation of two specific groups of students: students workers and foreign students. The authors distinguish these two concepts, and consider both common and different features of the process of social adaptation in Russian universities.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.