Макроэкономическое равновесие на рынках благ и денег. Модель IS-LM
WHAT HAS REMAINED OF THE USSR EXPLORING THE EROSION OF THE POST-SOVIET SPACE Almost three decades have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In the meantime, a whole new generation has grown up with no personal memory of the Soviet era. However, the disintegration of a former superpower cannot happen in such a manner that its heritage disappears without a trace. The aim of this report is to take stock of the process of erosion in the post-Soviet space that has been going on since the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. The authors analyse the remaining material and other structural legacies of the USSR to find out, among other things, whether re-integration of the post-Soviet space, or a part thereof, around Russia is still possible and what kind of centrifugal and centripetal forces are still at play. The authors approach the research questions from the perspective of cross-cutting issues that encompass the region as a whole. The aim is not to study how the post-Soviet states are faring almost three decades after the transition. Instead, the focus is on key themes such as defence relations, energy and economic ties, as well as on various efforts to create integration structures that would again unite at least parts of the region. The report is divided into three thematic parts. The first part concerns the structural issues of post-Soviet politics and policies. The second part comprises two studies dealing with the economic ties that still exist among the countries of the former Soviet Union. The third part deals with the societal aspects of the question.
The author attempts to compare various models of political systems based not on GDP but on Human Development Index which to a greater extent demonstrates that political system correlate with political culture and traditions of a given country.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the global financial crisis on the Central Bank, the key institutions of the financial sector. This paper deals with the major changes the functioning of this institution in modern conditions, reveals mechanism of the unconventional monetary policy in the liquidity trap.
Organizing and regulating influence of public authorities on the activity of the population of the region, in order to streamline and reproduce, based on their power force.
Russia after the Global Economic Crisis examines this important country after the financial crisis of 2007–09. The second book from The Russia Balance Sheet Project, a collaboration of two of the world's preeminent research institutions, the Peterson Institute for International Economics and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), not only assesses Russia's international and domestic policy challenges but also provides an all-encompassing review of this important country's foreign and domestic issues. The authors consider foreign policy, Russia and it neighbors, climate change, Russia's role in the world, domestic politics, and corruption.
On the basis of in-depth case studies of four Russian regions, Kirov and Voronezh oblasts and Krasnoyarsk and Perm' krais, the trade-offs among social and economic policy at the regional level in Russia are examined. All four regional governments seek to develop entrepreneurship while preserving social welfare obligations and improving compensation in the public sector. Richer regions have a greater ability to reconcile social commitments with the promotion of business. Regions differ in their development strategies, some placing greater emphasis on indigenous business development and others seeking to attract federal or foreign investment. Governors have considerable discretion in choosing their strategy so long as they meet basic performance demands set by the federal government such as ensuring good results for the United Russia party. In all four regions, governments consult actively with local business associations whereas organized labor is weak. However, the absence of effective institutions to enforce commitments undertaken by government and its social partners undermines regional capacity to use social policy as a basis for long-term economic development.
The chapter explores the structural change in Russian economy during the last 20 years since the beginning of transition from planned to market economy. We focus the study on the role and place of manufacturing industry in generation of jobs and incomes and on major internal and external factors responsible for those changes using mostly official data from the national statistical agency. We show that in general this period can be described as a period of deindustrialization and the share of manufacturing has been diminishing both in terms of its input in GDP and, in particular, in providing employment and incomes. We describe how various combinations of economic and political factors determined the manufacturing industry development at different sub-periods and argue that the domineering process was the passive adjustment of Russian enterprises to global competition by cutting down inefficient job-places and production lines. While this restructuring was accompanied by significant growth of labour productivity the rates of technological modernization were insufficient to increase competitiveness of majority of firms and to increase and diversify Russian manufacturing export due mostly to inefficient state policy for creating a favourable investment climate and to attract domestic and foreign direct investments to Russian manufacturing sector.
Russia, industrialization, manufacturing, economic policy, institutional development