Field of Higher Education Research, Russia
The entry provides an overview of the development of the multidiscilinary field of higher education research in Russia. In Soviet period, research on higher education has been developing along with the division of research in the country – between the Academy of Sciences, higher education institutions, and sectoral research under the corresponding ministries. However, current lack of an institutional basis for higher education research reflects the marginal role that the field plays in Russia.
Modernisation, innovation, économie de la connaissance : des mots d’ordre que les autorités russes ne cessent de marteler sous les présidences successives de Vladimir Poutine et de Dmitri Medvedev. Les universités sont au coeur de cette stratégie d’Etat, qui doit permettre au pays de ne plus dépendre exclusivement de la rente énergétique. L’enjeu est aussi de replacer l’enseignement supérieur russe au sein du marché mondial de l’éducation, en attirant des étudiants étrangers et en revalorisant l’image du pays. Mais ces ambitions nationales et internationales sont-elles encore à la portée des établissements supérieurs russes éprouvés par les années de transition post-communiste, longtemps sous-financées, se partageant des étudiants de moins en moins nombreux ? La réforme profonde, engagée au milieu des années 2000, atteindra-t-elle son objectif de placer quelques universités russes dans le Top-100 des classements internationaux ? Cet ouvrage propose une analyse de la situation et des perspectives de l'une des meilleures universités nationales - Université fédérale de l’Oural. Les auteures, deux chercheuses russes et françaises, se sont appuyées sur des entretiens afin d’appréhender au mieux les transformations en cours au sein de l'URFU et perspectives de l'universite.
At the institutional determinants of inequality of opportunity in quality higher education. The author of the main directions of the necessary institutional reforms to improve the accessibility of higher education in Russia.
This article presents the results of analysis of representations of young people constructed in newspapers and academic journals concerned Russian higher education. The main focus is the specificity of representation of young people in central Russian newspapers
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This is the first handbook to cover the sociological approaches to higher education. It is timely because of global expansions of mass higher educational systems, especially as these systems come under scrutiny by a variety of stakeholders. Questions are being raised about the value of traditional pedagogies along with calls for efficiency, accountability and cost-reduction, but above all job training.
Within this neoliberal context, each chapter examines different sociological aspects of, and debates about, educational institutions as status-conferring organizations, with myriad positional characteristics, experiences, and outcomes. Many current debates concern the legitimacy of the statuses conferred, including the continuing debate regarding the role of universities in legitimating social class reproduction as well as more recent concerns about standards in mass systems.
This handbook puts these issues and debates in focus in ways that will be of interest to a variety of stakeholders, within academia as well as in policy circles. (from Routledge website)
The article presents the current practices of system of remuneration for university teaching staff in higher educational institutions in Russia. The research was based on 51 in-depth interviews in the 6 universities and included the analysis of 100 universities’ local acts of the wage system. The main question of the article is: what are the differences in the remuneration systems in the 6 higher education institutions and why these differences occur. We claim that the universities’ remuneration systems are formed under the impact of 4 factors: 1) external formal accountability to the federal and regional governments; 2) strategic goals of the university (which are often formed as a university response to external accountability); 3) the financial resources of the university; 4) its internal features: the number of university teaching staff, centralized or decentralized management, the number of departments of the university and its’ profiles.
The chapter provides an analysis of the Russian system of higher education in a comparative perspective, including massification and social inequality issues.
The article describes transformations of the Russian education system during the past decades and discusses the role of the Bologna process, and particularly the introduction of a new degree system, in the course of the higher education reforms. Two new types of the Russian universities introduced – federal universities and national research universities – should become engines in the realization of the tasks under reform. The role of universities and their development programmes increases, a new funding model should give more autonomy to the HEIs and secure sustainability in the implementation of their development strategies. The Bologna process has definitely served as a catalyst in the course of the modernization of the Russian education sector and everybody would benefit if it were more coordinated with general reforms.
The article starts with reviewing of major sociological approaches to higher education (education as accumulation of professional capital, education as class distinction, education as age moratorium, etc.). We then derive hypotheses from each of the theories on how the process of choosing between specialties is organized. Each of the models of student choice is then tested against objective data on application to different specialties of a large university using multiple regression and social network analysis. It seems that the model of opportunistic professionalism fits the data best: the prospective students choose their preferred specialty early, probably on the basis of projected financial returns, and prepare for them purposefully for a long period of time. When it proves unavailable, however, they easily shift to less attractive options. Paid education programs serve as inferior goods to the public-funded ones.