Перевод как лингвокультурная трансляция: основные стратегии
The paper analyze a cognitive schemes - from the prototype to the scenario as applied to the management tasks. It is shown that understanding the essence and structure of cognitive schemes as tools for describing and constructing reality allows enriching the notion of scenic and scenario management. Particular attention is paid to the semantic nature of the scenario and the use of different scenario semantics of in solving actual management problems.
The article is implemented within the cognitive approach and is dedicated to the formation of a substantive core of the polysemantic verb, particularly of the verb of relations in the modern English. The first part of the article presents points of view on the semantic nature - "content plan" - of the word. In the second part of the paper the authors identify the main cognitive mechanisms underlying the formation of meanings of the verb compose, as well as its substantial core that combines all the lexical-semantic variants of a this verb.
Acquired disorders of writing in the Russian language have been reported for more than a century. The study of these disorders reflects the history of Russian neuropsychology and is dominated by the syndrome approach most notably by the writings of Luria. Indeed, our understanding of acquired dysgraphia in Russian speakers is conceptualized according to the classical approach in Modern Russia. In this review, we describe the classical approach and compare it to the cognitive neuropsychological models of writing disorders that are developed to explain dysgraphia in English and in other Western European languages. We argue that the basic theoretical assumptions of the two approaches – cognitive and classical or syndrome approach – share similarities. It is therefore proposed that identification of acquired cases of dysgraphia in Russian could potentially benefit from taking the cognitive neuropsychological perspective. We also conclude that adopting elements of the syndrome approach would substantially enrich the understanding of acquired dysgraphia since these offer an insight into processes not described in the cognitive neuropsychological approach.
The paper deals with the problem of using graphic visuals in English class as a means ofenhancing discourse structure awareness from the psychoeducational perspective. The issue under consideration has become actual in teaching English for Specific Purposes, e.g. Economics in English, as well as Academic English. Discourse structures are basic text models making it possible to fully understand detailed information and carry out a systematic analysis. Appropriate interpretation of diagrams, visual frames, semantic webs, mind-maps and other graphic visuals by means of the OPTIC system implies the use of overview-, parts-, title-, interrelations- and conclusion- components. As in this case theleft and right cerebral hemispheres are involved in the mental process, thinking visually can both expand students’ horizons and raise the chances of containing information inthe long-term memory.