Medios alternativos y esferas públicas paralelas en Rusia
The idea of this chapter is to show the institutional organisation of alternative media in Russia and its relation with social dynamics of its public sphere/s. For us not all alternative publics in Russia could be called "counter publics" and respectively not all "counter publics" in reality use alternative media channels.
To analyse the contemporary alternative public media we will do a reference to the concept of official and parallel public spheres as well as to concepts of counter public sphere and alternative public sphere. Main argument of the proposed chapter is based on the idea of isolation between different public spheres and its discourses which ensures the gatekeeping function for messages in each of such public spaces. We distinguish official public sphere which is oriented toward mass audience and represent the mainstream media, institutionalised alternative public sphere which is oriented toward opposition minority and is organised around about 10 narrow so called 'liberal media' and non-institutionalized public sphere mainly relying on blogs, twits and others forms of social networking. The effectiveness of the state communicative manipulation resides in the ability to control and filter messages at the intersections of such public spheres. Such manipulation transforms some political forces into completely isolated "information ghettos" and deprives them from any legal and representative political activity.