Spatial attention of people involved in a co-operative activity is often directed to the same objects in the environment. At the same time, one of the partners’ gaze redirection can be involved in controlling attention of others. It could be assumed that the degree of the gaze cueing effect, which has become a focus of growing research interest in recent decades, might be influenced by such social psychological factors as one’s attitude towards the partner and social distance between the partners. To test these assumptions, a virtual 3D environment was created, in which a modified version of the cueing paradigm by Posner et al. (1978) was implemented. An intergroup experimental design was used. For one group of participants, the anthropomorphic avatar was introduced in the instruction as a “virtual assistant”, for the other group, it was presented as a “virtual assessment specialist”. The avatar could provide valid and invalid gaze cues regarding the future target location. Both groups participated in two experimental sessions, in one session the distance between the participant and the avatar was 1.5 m (comfortable distance corresponding to the zone of formal social contacts) and in the other session the distance was 1 m (uncomfortable distance corresponding to the zone of personal contacts). The gaze cueing effect was observed through all experimental conditions in a virtual environment. However, it was more pronounced for the “assisting” set than for the “assessing” one. Interestingly, for the assisting set, the effect was asymmetric: the gain due to a valid cue turned out to be less pronounced than the delay in the response to a target after an invalid cue. For both conditions, the gaze cueing effect was more pronounced at a distance of 1 m between the participant and the avatar than at a distance of 1.5 m. The latter result could be associated either with the large angular dimensions of a gaze cue or with blurring of boundaries of the personal zone in the virtual environment. The results can be applied in the development of educational virtual environments.
In the contemporary world where social media became one of the key sources of information about offline reality, a rally can be performed without even leaving your house. That is why the discussion participants and the audience reflect on the problem of ‘authenticity' of the virtual reality and political actions it provides. The users ponder the question whether virtual activism is relevant, what conditions make virtual political action ‘real' and ‘accomplished', i.e. they try to define the status of virtual reality and the boundaries between the ‘real' and the ‘virtual', the ‘original idea' (in E. Goffman's words) and the ‘falsifi cation'. This reframing results in a redef inition of what activists, city inhabitants and lawenforcementbodies considerto be a ‘political action'. The article considers how the perceptions of social media activism change and to what conflicts those changes can lead.
In the early 1990s, a small group of individuals recognized how virtual reality (VR) could transform medicine by immersing physicians, students and patients in data more completely. Technical obstacles delayed progress but VR is now enjoying a renaissance, with breakthrough applications available for healthcare.
This book presents papers from the Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 22 conference, held in Los Angeles, California, USA, in April 2016. Engineers, physicians, scientists, educators, students, industry, military, and futurists participated in its creative mix of unorthodox thinking and validated investigation. The topics covered include medical simulation and modeling, imaging and visualization, robotics, haptics, sensors, physical and mental rehabilitation tools, and more.
Providing an overview of the state-of-the-art, this book will interest all those involved in medical VR and in innovative healthcare, generally.
The paper sets forth a new way of considering impressionism under the frame of cognitonics. It is a new scientific discipline aimed at compensating the negative shifts in the cognitive-emotional development of personality and society caused by stormy progress of information and communication technologies (ICT) and globalization processes An original algorithm of transforming the negative emotions (caused by the messages received from social networks) into the positive ones is proposed. This algorithm considers the possible reactions of a human (including the recommended reactions) to the emotional attacks via social networks. A new look at impressionism underpins this algorithm. The algorithm is a part of an original interdisciplinary course “Foundations of secure living in information society”.
Human communication is basically the exchange of information. How can this be realized? Each communicant proceeds from a subjective perception of an objective reality; however in order to exchange information relating to this reality communicants are obliged to coordinate their perceptions. Each of us entertains personal experiences based on individual impressions and associations. But communication presupposes the presence of a common experience and the possibility of the coordination of subjective perceptions. It is presumed that communicants share common experiences: this seems to be the natural premise of communication.
How is this possible? How can I be certain, for example, that my interlocutor understands the words in the same way I do? How can we correlate our understanding? It seems obvious that the necessary condition of communication is an agreement between the communicants. But how can this agreement be reached? Where is the initial point of the coordination of individual experience of different persons?
The present book deals with this and related questions. Special attention is given to the role of deixis in the process of communication and to the mechanisms of linguistic comprehension.