Diversity and equity in plural societies: Psychological perspectives
This chapter presents a framework for understanding the concept of diversity as being inclusive of variations in culture, ethnicity, religion, age, gender and sexual orientation. It further underscores the relationship between diversity and opportunity for equitable participation, which is considered essential for societal development.
The paper deals with fertility levels in some republics of the North Caucasus (Dagestan and Karachay-Cherkessia) where, as in some other post-Soviet regions, there has been a serious intensification of religiosity and at the same time weakening of the traditional family unit in recent decades. The goal of the paper is to ascertain whether these trends affect fertility, whose decrease is apparently stalling in the North Caucasus over the last decade. One reason to turn to this question is that in some regions of the North Caucasus the fertility level has been considerably higher since the pronatalist state policy was implemented in 2007 than in Russia as a whole. This raises the question as to whether higher fertility in the North Caucasus is mainly related to a higher demand for the state financial support granted to parents following the birth of the second (or a subsequent) child or if it can be rather accounted for by the specific cultural characteristics of that part of Russia. Our field survey held in the two republics of the North Caucasus in 2016 showed that the religiosity of respondents is related to higher fertility regardless of family policy issues. The relation between religiosity and higher fertility is arguably independent from the observance of traditional family norms which impose gender hierarchies. This suggests that an Islamic revival within a given society can support fertility whether or not traditional norms of family organization are preserved there. The conclusion for state pronatalist policy is that its outcome may be related to the cultural characteristics of the population among which such measures are implemented, apart from economic parameters that drive the demand among some families for financial support after childbirth.
"How can psychology faculty and students become more involved in international psychology?" This has become a more common question inside and outside the USA, for at least five reasons. (a) Origins. From its very origins in Europe in 1879, our "scientific study of behavior and mental life" began as an international field. (b) Growth. Over 75% of the world's psychologists became concentrated in one region (North America) through most of the 20th Century, though this has dropped sharply since 1990, to under 25% in 2016, as psychological science and practice grow much faster outside North America. (c) Diversity. Since the 1970s, we psychologists have increasingly recognized the importance of human diversity (including cultural diversity) in our teaching, research, and practice. (d) Barriers. There have been barriers separating the indigenous psychologies in 194 nations and other regions of the globe (Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America). (e) Resources. These barriers are now being reduced by new resources and technologies, such as the Internet and MOOCs (Massive Open On-line Courses).
This chapter reviews why and how we can best internationalize our psychology teaching, in six parts: (a) The remarkably international origins of psychology in the late 1800s, followed by a decline in the 1900s. (b) The overdue rise of "diversity" within psychology in the 1970s, including cross-national diversity. (c) The emerging concept of "international psychology," as a new form of diversity. (d) Some challenges to a truly international psychology. (e) Twelve suggestions for U.S. and non-U.S. faculty and students to overcome these challenges. This includes a concise overview of current resources to help new and veteran faculty and their students to deepen their involvement in international psychology: organizations, conferences, publications, websites, funding, technologies.
This chapter is concerned the applied aspects of the culture concept. Culture is regarded as the source for cultural diversity, as a reservoir for managerial knowledge, and as an opportunity to gain additional competitive advantages for global companies. Cultural distance between members of multicultural teams that is caused by the influence of the national culture is seen with a positive intent as an opportunity to achieve cultural synergy. The proposed approach for innovating cultural synergy is based on a three-stage model. The first stage is to define the most relevant features of the cultural diversity on an example of the French-Russian collaboration. During the second stage, the opportunities of cultural diversity are employed to create new knowledge reservoirs in the management process. The final third stage is to develop new creative managerial decisions and initiatives in order to achieve the synergy effect and to increase multicultural teams’ management effectiveness.This chapter is concerned the applied aspects of the culture concept. Culture is regarded as the source for cultural diversity, as a reservoir for managerial knowledge, and as an opportunity to gain additional competitive advantages for global companies. Cultural distance between members of multicultural teams that is caused by the influence of the national culture is seen with a positive intent as an opportunity to achieve cultural synergy. The proposed approach for innovating cultural synergy is based on a three-stage model. The first stage is to define the most relevant features of the cultural diversity on an example of the French-Russian collaboration. During the second stage, the opportunities of cultural diversity are employed to create new knowledge reservoirs in the management process. The final third stage is to develop new creative managerial decisions and initiatives in order to achieve the synergy effect and to increase multicultural teams’ management effectiveness.
Students studying a foreign language find themselves involved into the dialogue between their own culture and that one of the target language. To perform successfully cross-cultural communication they need to develop cross-cultural competence. The task of a foreign language teacher is to help them acquire necessary skills. The article addresses the issue of using fictional discourse as a valuable source to teach cultural diversity as cultural patterns, concepts, symbols and stereotypes are acquired through texts of a particular culture, literary works playing a significant role among them. The focus is on certain comprehensive analysis techniques (linguo-stylistic, conceptual and culturological) of figures of speech, metonymy in particular, which can be applied to decode implicit cultural codes.
"How can psychology professors in the USA and other nations make their courses more international?" This question is addressed in this indispensable new sourcebook, co-authored by 73 contributors and editors from 21 countries. In recent decades psychology has evolved from an American-dominated discipline to a much more global discipline. Preliminary estimates by Zoma and Gielen (2015) suggest that approximately 76%-78% of the world’s one million or so psychologists reside outside the U.S. However, most textbooks in the field continue to rely predominantly on research conducted in North America and Europe. Our book is intended to introduce psychology instructors to a variety of broad perspectives as well as specific suggestions that can support their efforts to internationalize their course offerings at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. In this way they can prepare their students to become more culturally sensitive and function more effectively as citizens and psychologists in the evolving globalized world. To achieve these ambitious goals the editors have assembled an international group of 73 distinguished contributors who, taken together, have taught and conducted research in all regions of the world. The chapters in the book include both core areas of psychology and subdisciplines that represent rapidly expanding and internationally important areas such as cross-cultural psychology and the psychology of gender. The chapters cover key topics and areas included in the course offerings of psychology departments both in the United States and in other countries. In addition to a discussion of international perspectives relevant to a given area, all chapters include an annotated bibliography of pertinent books, articles, web-related materials, films, videos, and so on. Based on this information, both highly experienced and less experienced psychology instructors can add globally and culturally oriented dimensions to their respective courses. This is important because universities, departments, and accrediting agencies increasingly put pressure on instructors to broaden and internationalize their courses.