Diversity and equity in plural societies: Psychological perspectives
This chapter presents a framework for understanding the concept of diversity as being inclusive of variations in culture, ethnicity, religion, age, gender and sexual orientation. It further underscores the relationship between diversity and opportunity for equitable participation, which is considered essential for societal development.
Modern Russia faces the need to update theoretical paradigms in different areas of public administration, including regulation of ethno-political relations (ethnic, religious, federal, etc.). The paradigm of “national policy”, which in the USSR and post-soviet Russia for a long time has been the only theoretical basis for such management, today requires corrections and additions based on the new political realities and contemporary theoretical views. Thus, in this project we proceed from the assumption that the ethno-political situation in Russia at the beginning of the XXi century has changed significantly compared to the 1990s, while the methodology of regulation of these processes and the formation of national policy lags behind these changes.
"How can psychology faculty and students become more involved in international psychology?" This has become a more common question inside and outside the USA, for at least five reasons. (a) Origins. From its very origins in Europe in 1879, our "scientific study of behavior and mental life" began as an international field. (b) Growth. Over 75% of the world's psychologists became concentrated in one region (North America) through most of the 20th Century, though this has dropped sharply since 1990, to under 25% in 2016, as psychological science and practice grow much faster outside North America. (c) Diversity. Since the 1970s, we psychologists have increasingly recognized the importance of human diversity (including cultural diversity) in our teaching, research, and practice. (d) Barriers. There have been barriers separating the indigenous psychologies in 194 nations and other regions of the globe (Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America). (e) Resources. These barriers are now being reduced by new resources and technologies, such as the Internet and MOOCs (Massive Open On-line Courses).
This chapter reviews why and how we can best internationalize our psychology teaching, in six parts: (a) The remarkably international origins of psychology in the late 1800s, followed by a decline in the 1900s. (b) The overdue rise of "diversity" within psychology in the 1970s, including cross-national diversity. (c) The emerging concept of "international psychology," as a new form of diversity. (d) Some challenges to a truly international psychology. (e) Twelve suggestions for U.S. and non-U.S. faculty and students to overcome these challenges. This includes a concise overview of current resources to help new and veteran faculty and their students to deepen their involvement in international psychology: organizations, conferences, publications, websites, funding, technologies.
This chapter is concerned the applied aspects of the culture concept. Culture is regarded as the source for cultural diversity, as a reservoir for managerial knowledge, and as an opportunity to gain additional competitive advantages for global companies. Cultural distance between members of multicultural teams that is caused by the influence of the national culture is seen with a positive intent as an opportunity to achieve cultural synergy. The proposed approach for innovating cultural synergy is based on a three-stage model. The first stage is to define the most relevant features of the cultural diversity on an example of the French-Russian collaboration. During the second stage, the opportunities of cultural diversity are employed to create new knowledge reservoirs in the management process. The final third stage is to develop new creative managerial decisions and initiatives in order to achieve the synergy effect and to increase multicultural teams’ management effectiveness.This chapter is concerned the applied aspects of the culture concept. Culture is regarded as the source for cultural diversity, as a reservoir for managerial knowledge, and as an opportunity to gain additional competitive advantages for global companies. Cultural distance between members of multicultural teams that is caused by the influence of the national culture is seen with a positive intent as an opportunity to achieve cultural synergy. The proposed approach for innovating cultural synergy is based on a three-stage model. The first stage is to define the most relevant features of the cultural diversity on an example of the French-Russian collaboration. During the second stage, the opportunities of cultural diversity are employed to create new knowledge reservoirs in the management process. The final third stage is to develop new creative managerial decisions and initiatives in order to achieve the synergy effect and to increase multicultural teams’ management effectiveness.
Students studying a foreign language find themselves involved into the dialogue between their own culture and that one of the target language. To perform successfully cross-cultural communication they need to develop cross-cultural competence. The task of a foreign language teacher is to help them acquire necessary skills. The article addresses the issue of using fictional discourse as a valuable source to teach cultural diversity as cultural patterns, concepts, symbols and stereotypes are acquired through texts of a particular culture, literary works playing a significant role among them. The focus is on certain comprehensive analysis techniques (linguo-stylistic, conceptual and culturological) of figures of speech, metonymy in particular, which can be applied to decode implicit cultural codes.
"How can psychology professors in the USA and other nations make their courses more international?" This question is addressed in this indispensable new sourcebook, co-authored by 73 contributors and editors from 21 countries. In recent decades psychology has evolved from an American-dominated discipline to a much more global discipline. Preliminary estimates by Zoma and Gielen (2015) suggest that approximately 76%-78% of the world’s one million or so psychologists reside outside the U.S. However, most textbooks in the field continue to rely predominantly on research conducted in North America and Europe. Our book is intended to introduce psychology instructors to a variety of broad perspectives as well as specific suggestions that can support their efforts to internationalize their course offerings at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. In this way they can prepare their students to become more culturally sensitive and function more effectively as citizens and psychologists in the evolving globalized world. To achieve these ambitious goals the editors have assembled an international group of 73 distinguished contributors who, taken together, have taught and conducted research in all regions of the world. The chapters in the book include both core areas of psychology and subdisciplines that represent rapidly expanding and internationally important areas such as cross-cultural psychology and the psychology of gender. The chapters cover key topics and areas included in the course offerings of psychology departments both in the United States and in other countries. In addition to a discussion of international perspectives relevant to a given area, all chapters include an annotated bibliography of pertinent books, articles, web-related materials, films, videos, and so on. Based on this information, both highly experienced and less experienced psychology instructors can add globally and culturally oriented dimensions to their respective courses. This is important because universities, departments, and accrediting agencies increasingly put pressure on instructors to broaden and internationalize their courses.