Patriotic and Geopolitical Components of Youth Outlook in Russia
This article focuses on the meanings of search work in Russia, i.e. the search for and identification of the unburied remains of Soviet soldiers who perished in WW2. These meanings are constructed not only by the participants of expeditions (or poiskoviki, as they call themselves), but also by the Russian authorities, who actively support this movement. To reconstruct these meanings, we rely on several different sources: the addresses of Russia’s presidents to the search movement, participant observations as part of expeditions, interviews with their members and texts by the searchers themselves in the form of books, stories, songs and blog posts in social media. The rhetoric of the state authorities as regards the movement is filled with elevated sentiments like “patriotism”, “heroism”, “education”, “pride for the Fatherland”, and “national consolidation”. They tend to discursively embed it in the patriotic education of Russian citizens, formulating the meanings of the search in the context of militarized patriotism. The search work is presented by the president as a demonstration of “genuine patriotism”, which consists in defending the country with arms and self-sacrifice. Searchers’ statements about their work are colored with motives of a different tone, such as the sense of unfairness towards the soldiers who have remained unburied for decades. Some members of the movement reject the patriotic rhetoric and critically contest the educational effect of their work. The desire to restore fairness by burying the remains and informing the relatives about the fate of missing soldiers is the basic meaning of the searches according to the participants. A successful search is thought to contribute to the understanding of the tragedy of a family that lost loved ones in the war. The problematization of the war in the searchers’ experiences is discursively and explicitly contrasted with the authorities’ militaristic rhetoric.
In article on the basis of two Central documents from Russian archives (State archive of the Russian Federation and the Russian state archive of socio-political history) reconstructed "propaganda twist" at the final stage of the great Patriotic war. Turning point scale using the new concept of "Soviet patriotism" can be considered speech And. Century of Stalin at the ceremonial meeting of the Moscow Soviet of working people's deputies from the party and public organizations of the city of Moscow on 6 November 1944 But by the end of this process you can read the April 1946, ending a protracted period of realignment of military propaganda. The conclusion is made that the Historical examples of patriotism and observationsby discourse military pores were less applicable in terms of the unfolding of the cold war and stands Soviet institutions and advantages of socialism" in Eastern Europe.
In the center of analysis - specific of youth perception of Russian history and it's place in the constructed patriotic images. Attention is paid to assessments of concrete historical events and personalities, also the article shows an ambiguous effect on the patriotic feelings of youth. It is studies the efficiency of its patriotic education, based on appeal to the facts of history.
Article is dedicated to the problem of the formation of Lev Tolstoy's world views and evolution of his views on the violence and the war. There is shown Tolstoy's way from the patriotic directivity to the substantiation of idea nonviolence and the nonresistance to evil by force.