Социальные фондовые биржи - инвестиционная инфраструктура «третьего» и «четвёртого» секторов экономики
This article aims to provides a theoretical overview of social stock exchanges, as innovative tools of social investment attracting. In the article we define functions of SSEs, its main features and compare SSEs with traditional stock exchanges.
The development and use of Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been a contentios subject for the last three decades. while there has been a number of social science analysis of the issues, this is the first book to assess the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the debate at such wide geographic scale. The various posiotions, for and against GMOs, particularly with regards to trangenic crops, articulated by NGOs in the debate are dissected, classified and juxtaposed to corresponding campaigns. these are discussed in the context of paradigms, including nature fundamentalism and the organic movement, post-colonialism, food sovereignty, anti-globalism, sustainability and feminism. This book also analyses how NGOs interprete the debate and the persuasive communication tactics.
The theoretical basis of work is the notion of legitimation as a complex mechanism of social approval of a new phenomenon taking place with the active participation of different social groups and structures, able to influence its final form. In the focus of the empirical analysis the representations of social entrepreneurship that main actors of its legitimacy in Russia have. Among them are: the state, foundations, NPOs and business. We assess the (in)consistency between their representations as well as the reflection of these representations in the characteristics of existing organizations of social entrepreneurship (social enterprises).
Business, government and NPOs are understood as external actors of social enterprise legitimation, as without their recognition the legitimation will not take place. In turn, social enterprises, regardless of whether they come from for-profit or non-profit sector, are seen as objects of legitimation, or as a new actor, not identical to any of the above. It is shown that the contradictions in the positions of key actors can lead to mutually exclusive projects of legitimation of a new phenomenon, so that they will undermine the cognitive and moral legitimacy of each other. The empirical data include the results of the authors survey of 202 social enterprises.
Socially-oriented projects require specific stakeholder approach for social impact (SROI) evaluation. In this article we attempt to identify groups of stakeholders interested in getting information concerning social impact of the project. We also offer classification of stakeholders with reasons to include or exclude a particular group from different steps of SROI analisys. Practical aspects of this approach are illustrated by the example of the “Separate collection” ecological movement.
There are some reasons, why both social investors and social project initiators (including NGO) need mediators for the process of investments. Mediators can reduce transaction costs for both sides because they shoulder the functions of search, audit, information expansion and also they create convenient services for investors and recipients. So social exchange platforms provides “good and clear” competition for resources in Russian “third sector” of economy.