In this paper we present a VERifying MONiTor (VERMONT) which is a software toolset for checking the consistency of network configurations with formally specified invariants of Packet Forwarding Policies (PFP). Correct and safe management of networks is a very hard task. Every time the current load of flow tables should satisfy certain requirements. Some packets have to reach their destination, whereas some other packets have to be dropped. Certain switches are forbidden for some packets, whereas some other switches have to be obligatorily traversed. Loops are not allowed. These and some other requirements constitute a PFP. One of the aims of network engineering is to provide such a loading of switches with forwarding rules as to guarantee compliance with the PFP. VERMONT provides some automation to the solution of this task. VERMONT can be installed in line with the control plane. It observes state changes of a network by intercepting messages sent by switches to the controller and command sent by the controller to switches. It builds an adequate formal model of a whole network and checks every event, such as installation, deletion, or modification of rules, port and switch up and down events, against a set formal requirements of PFP. Before a network update command is sent to a switch VERMONT anticipates the result of its execution and checks whether a new state of network satisfies all requirements of PFP. If this is the case then the command is delivered to the corresponding switch. Upon detecting a violation of PFP VERMONT blocks the change, alerts a network administrator, and gives some additional information to elucidate a possible source of an error. VERMONT has a wide area of applications. It can be attached to a SDN controller just to check basic safety properties (the absence of loops, black-holes, etc) of the network managed by the controller. VERMONT may be also cooperated with software units (like FlowVisor) that aggregate several controllers. In this case VERMONT checks the compatibility of PFPs implemented by these controllers. This toolset can be used as a fully automatic safeguard for every software application which implements certain PFP on a SDN controller.
The paper theorizes on the general architectonics of idealized cognitive models (ICMs) and their involvement in metonymy and metaphor. The article posits that an ICM's structure should reflect the architecture of the neural network/s engaged in processing of a given concept. The ICM nodes, or cogs, construct a complex, hierarchically organized neural connections, with the superior nodes being highly selective, invariant and prototypical. Signals travelling from one cog to another within one ICM are essentially metonymical, while a cog shared by two or more ICMs marks a metaphoric shift.
The article describes the correlation of language and speech. Language and speech are related, but they are not identical; each of them occupies its niche in human consciousness. The language system is a verbose concept, which is derived from the process of speaking and understanding. Language reveals itself in individual speech and only represents he world, and not objectively. Language functions in speech, because in language communication a speaker uses permanent samples, cliches, standards that helps to form language environment for him.
International Science and Technology Conference "Modern Networking Technologies (MoNeTec): SDN&NFV Next Generation of Computational Infrastructure" was dedicated to the Software defined Networks (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV). These technologies have emerged as the hottest networking trends of the past a few years. The conference proceeding represent the papers where the broad scope of SDN&NFV topics are discussed.