The aim of this article is to analyze strategies of combining motherhood and employment. For this purpose the notion of work-family balance will be conceptualized. The author suggests that strategies of mixed professional and family duties is being constructed at the level of household and depends on available personal and family resources as well as individual choices of working adults. Because contemporary Russian family policy does not provide institutional supports for working parents to combine motherhood and employment. Working mothers are in search of family-work balance, because child care is the main women responsibilities. Motherhood is still a crucial part of life project for Russian women.
The development of the idea of calling is traced from its religious and philosophical roots. The present state of this problem in psychology and further lines of research are considered.
Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scales and well-being measures in British (N¼179) and Russian (N¼289) student samples. On the basis of person-oriented approach, a cluster-analysis operationalization of Balanced Time Perspective (BTP) using ZTPI was proposed and validated, demonstrating more evidence for its validity than the previously suggested cut-off-point approach. Four distinct time perspective patterns were discovered in both samples: future-oriented, present-oriented, balanced and negative. The clusters revealed significant differences in well-being, with members of the BTP cluster demonstrating the highest scores in both samples. The relationship between ZTPI and Temporal Life Satisfaction Scale in the British sample was found to be non-uniform for past, present and future. Based on these findings, a distinction between three aspects of time perspective is theoretically proposed, and its implications for the future development of the ZTPI are discussed.