The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the relation between the concepts of loss of meaning (V. Frankl) and alienation (K. Marx, E. Fromm) that are related to similar phenomena. A theory of alienation as an existential neurosis (S. Maddi) is reviewed and seen as a link between these two traditions. Based on the multidimensional view of the ontology of meaning as a psychological and a sociocultural unit, the authors present a view of experiences of meaningfulness and meaning loss as emergent phenomena of the overall system of relationships with the world that are actively pursued by an individual (this view is based on theories of A.N. Leontiev, S. Maddi, J. Nakamura, M. Csikszentmihalyi). In this view, alienation is seen as a category that describes ontological basis of meaninglessness, which is a subjective phenomenon.
The development of the idea of calling is traced from its religious and philosophical roots. The present state of this problem in psychology and further lines of research are considered.
During the last two decades the phenomenon of life calling attracts considerable attention from foreign researchers. Research on calling has started in the USA and Europe and continues in China, India and South Korea. New conceptualizations keep emerging along with measurement instruments, and the main challenge faced by research community is to reach common understanding of this phenomenon. In the current paper we will describe different approaches to life calling: calling as divine command, calling as job fit and moral duty, calling as work orientation, calling as transcendent summons, calling as passion towards a domain, as well as corresponding measurement instruments. Research shows, that all those approaches address the same base construct that, supposedly, has life meaning at its core. Source of calling, prosocial character, the role of religion in calling discernment and several other aspects are still subject to discussion. Despite complications with formulating of the unified concept of calling, it is already clear, that it influences work and life in general substantially. On the one hand, calling positively affects work and life satisfaction, mitigates influence of stress and burnout, and also helps to choose life and career path. One the other hand, it may cause exploitation at work, sacrifices in the other areas of life, and also, when unfulfilled, may induce regret for missed opportunities for self-realization. The primary aim of the present paper is to attract Russian researchers’ attention to the phenomenon of life calling, to trigger further research and find its place among such concepts as life meaning, choice, personal potential, self-actualization and personalization.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.