Institutional Aspects of EU-Russian Energy Relations: From Diversification to Primitivisation?
The chapter constructs a new approach to legal approximation in EU-Russian energy relations
The paper argues that a new comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and a third partner (Russia) is needed and sketches a three-level concept. The progress and prospects of legal approximation in EU-Russian energy relations are then explored through this theoretical prism. Two issue arenas of the energy dialogue are compared and contrasted (market-making and clean energy) to identify the reasons for the success of the clean energy agenda and the causes of failure of the market-making initiatives. Ways to improve the market-making part of the EU-Russian energy dialogue are also suggested on the basis of the three-level theory of legal approximation.
The article introduces a special issue on studying EU-Russian relations. It overviews Russian- and English-language academic research to identify whether there is sufficient dialogue on issues studied, theories applied and categories used for a transnational epistemic community to emerge. This latter would allow the academic world to better contribute to the resolution of the present crisis in EU-Russian relations. Although an overlap is identified in issues, theories and categories the article exposes multiple differences in how they are approached in English- and Russian-language academic writings. These findings challenge the existence of a transnational epistemic community in EU-Russian relations. The article concludes by discussing steps to make for this community to develop, and introduces contributions to the special issue.
The article examines partnerships for modernisation between Russia, on the one hand, and the EU as well as 23 out of its 28 member states, on the other hand. In doing that it first identifies the difference between the Russian economic interpretation of modernisation and the EU's one based on political values. The article then demonstrates the ambiguity rather than singularity of the position that EU member states promote in their modernisation partnerships with Russia. To illustrate the difference among EU member states’ the article designs a scale of Russia’s sensitivity to various political aspects of modernization and then posits member states on this scale on the basis of their national partnerships for modernisation with Russia. As a result, a new classification of EU member states emerges; it is based on the extent, to which they are ready to defend the political definition of modernisation (and ultimately the EU's normative power) in their relations with Russia.