Теория кластеров М. Портера
This book focuses on the questions of how territorial differences in productivity levels and unemployment rates arise in the first place and why territorial differences in labor market performance persist over time. Unemployment divergence and unemployment club convergence have been touched on in a large number of works and have recently also been studied using spatial econometric analysis. In this book we aim to develop the debate to include several important new topics, such as: the reasons why structural changes in some sectors cause slumps in some regions but not in others; the extent to which agglomeration factors explain regional imbalances; the degree of convergence / divergence across EU countries and regions; the role of labor mobility in reducing / increasing regional labor market imbalances; the impact of EU and country-level regional policy in stimulating convergence; and the (unsatisfactory) role of active labor market policy in stimulating labor supply in the weakest economic areas.
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
One of the goals of the first edition of this book back in 2005 was to present a coherent theory for K-Means partitioning and Ward hierarchical clustering. This theory leads to effective data pre-processing options, clustering algorithms and interpretation aids, as well as to firm relations to other areas of data analysis. The goal of this second edition is to consolidate, strengthen and extend this island of understanding in the light of recent developments. Moreover, the material on validation and interpretation of clusters is updated with a system better reflecting the current state of the art and with our recent ``lifting in taxonomies'' approach. The structure of the book has been streamlined by adding two Chapters: ``Similarity Clustering'' and ``Validation and Interpretation'', while removing two chapters: ``Different Clustering Approaches'' and ``General Issues.'' The Chapter on Mathematics of the data recovery approach, in a much extended version, almost doubled in size, now concludes the book. Parts of the removed chapters are integrated within the new structure. The change has added a hundred pages and a couple of dozen examples to the text and, in fact, transformed it into a different species of a book. In the first edition, the book had a Russian doll structure, with a core and a couple of nested shells around. Now it is a linear structure presentation of the data recovery clustering.
The historical changes in Central and Eastern Europe demanded suitable paths for the transition from centrally planned to market based economies. The lack of relevant experience added to the challenge, giving rise to the incalculable risks of implementing untested policies. By focusing on monetary policy, trade, and convergence, this volume addresses some of the most urgent economic policy issues in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
The current state of methods of the solution of boundary problems of mechanics of continuous environments is characterized. It is noted that packages of applied programs applied in engineering practice are based on the methods leading to solutions of boundary problems in the form of massifs of numbers. As a shortcoming the im-possibility of a reliable assessment of an error of such decisions for the majority of complex engineering chal-lenges is noted. As the alternative is stated an essence of a fictitious canonic regions method. It is shown that its application leads to solutions of boundary problems not in the form of massifs of numbers, but in the form of the functions which are identically satisfying with to the differential equations of boundary problems. The main ad-vantage of the fictitious canonic regions method - high precision of received results and possibility of a reliable assessment of their error. The review of stages of development of the fictitious canonic regions method is executed. The review of the works devoted to its application for the solution of scientific and engineering problems is executed.
The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.
The chapter discussed the problems of the Russia’s economic competitiveness in the booming years prior to 2008 economic crisis. We estimate the competitive advantages and weaknesses, and analyze the contribution of innovations into the growth dynamics pattern.
The community is interested in goods and services that are harmless for the environment and that's why ecological competitiveness become a significant factor in struggle for customer. The author proposed a method of calculation of the ecological competitiveness. The basis of the ecological competitiveness must be ecological advantages that the company creates and promotes on markets to succeed.