Зарубежные исследования в рамках экзистенциального направления психотерапии
In the article one of the major aspects of ontology of Paul Tillich (1886- 1965), an outstanding German-American philosopher and theologian, the founder of current neo-liberal theology, philosopher of culture, - the problem of existence as an alienation is analyzed. The concept of alienation, which is dominant in the world, is described by the majority of trends of modern philosophy and Christian anthropology to both of which Tillich belonged. The majority of religious thinkers of XX century (not only Christian thinkers) have apprehended philosophical concept of alienation as a correlate of theological concepts of God-abandonness, creatureness and sinfulness.
Psychotherapeutic practice calls for creating conceptions of autonomy, which can be utilized in work with clients. This article focuses on the psychotherapeutic approach called 'existential analysis and logotherapy' and makes explicit its ideas regarding autonomy. Specifically, the three key theoretical underpinnings of understanding and development of one's autonomy are described. It was shown that the existential-analytical practice is guided by the notions of 'person', dialogue/relatedness and phenomenology. The structural model of autonomy on the basis of existential analysis is discussed. It is argued that, although traditionally autonomy is strongly associated with the third fundamental motivation – the motivation to 'be oneself', this position is insufficient for practice. Thus, the central argument of the paper is that, from structural perspective, the useful way to address the issue of autonomy is to consider it as the interplay of the four fundamental existential motivations, described by A. Längle. Therefore, the process of maintaining of autonomy includes four different kinds of affirmation. The person says ‘yes’ to his or her subjective reality, own feelings, uniqueness and distinctiveness, and agentive presence in others and in the world. The paper also provides illustrations from psychotherapeutic practice to justify this standpoint.