Флаг Бетси Росс
This article is about legendary maker of the first American flag. According to family tradition, she made flag of stars and stripes in early June 1776 for a secret committee consisting of G. Washington, R. Morris and G. Ross. Although this fact is undocumented her identity is well established in public, government and historical records.
Folding of the American historical experience proceeded dramaticly, but brought important lessons for the development of all mankind. XXXIV International Conference of the Russian Society for the Study of American Culture, entitled "Display and interpretation of history in the culture of the United States", helped to analyze the dynamics of the processes associated with the perception of the history of North American cultural figures.
The yearbook published materials about the period from the end of XVIII to the middle of XX century. The authors examine a wide range of problems - from the ratification of the Constitution in 1787 in Massachusetts to the so-called American university novel. The reader will find little-known travel impressions of poet Balmont from a trip to America in the early XX century. Under the heading "America and Russia" a comparative analysis of the relationship of Russian and American to aborigines, examined the activities of the Soviet scientific, technical and industrial intelligence in the U.S. during the Second World War. Canadian themes represented by articles on the protection of fur seals in the Russian -Canadian relations at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. and the evolution of the Canada -Mexico bilateral relations. In the " Bibliography " are works on the history of the United States and Canada, published in Russian in 2007-2008 . For historians, political scientists and all those interested in the history of America.
During the Revolutionary War, women applied their traditional skills they learned as homemakers to espionage work. Often at great peril they secretly provided critical intelligence data to military and civilian leaders. There were several women in the Setauket Spy Ring that operated during revolution and kept general Washington supplied with information regarding the movements of the British troops in New York and Long Island.
In this article we are talking about the early development of the educational process in one of England's North American colonies. Pennsylvania attracted many immigrants from Europe by its religious freedom. Moving to a new land, Europeans from different countries brought their way of life, including various systems of education. Therefore, at the end of the beginning of the XVII-XVIII centuries there were several different types of schools. The national education system, which appeared only in the XIX century has absorbed much of the colonists created.
Article dedicated to the women's participation in supplying of Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Association of American women collected money, clothing and provisions helping troops to survive the crisis moments in the war life.
The second issue of the collection of articles is devoted to actual problems and new methods in the history of the USA in modern Russian American studies. The specialists from Moscow, Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Saransk, Astrakhan, Kirov and also from Belarus (Minsk), Ukraine (Kiev) and USA (Pennsylvania, Illinois) created it. It became international as a matter of fact. The mutual cooperation of different specialists in the American Studies: historians, philologists, culturologists, politologists, lawyers will be a special feature of this collection. There are different articles on actual questions. There are articles on domestic and foreign policy of the USA in 18-21 centuries. It has works on the history of American journalism, literature, theatre and law. The authors used new methods of studying: narrative, discourse, gender, interdisciplinary, comparative analysis and computer investigation of statistics. The collection of articles will be interesting and useful to researches, lectures and teachers, post-graduates and students, and also those who are interested in the problems of the USA.
Sculpture has always been a purely masculine matter. However, history has known a number of women’s names in this art. One of them is Patience Lowell Wright (1725–1786). She molded her figures out of wax since childhood. After the death of her husband,to earn a living for herself and her children, she turned a hobby into a job. In the 17th century, the activities of professional sculptors in America were limited to the production of tombstones and nose pieces for ships. Patience’s sister showed how to model life-size figures. Patience decided to specialize in creating images of outstanding contemporaries. In short, a traveling exhibition (the first in the US) of figures of famous public figures was created. Two years later, the number of figures was enough to organize two permanent exhibitions in Philadelphia and New York. But on June 3, 1771, a fire destroyed many of her works and she decided to move to London. Owing to the patronage of Benjamin Franklin, she was quickly accepted into London society. She made many famous British figures including Th. Penn, Ch. Fox, W. Pitt, C. Macaulay. She had a friendly relationship even with the royal couple, but only before the start of the Independence War. The sculptor openly sided with the colonists. It is believed that she even sent spy information,hidden in her figures, to the members of the Continental Congress. Another sphere of Wright’s activities was the liberation of American prisoners that started with the “Platt Case”. After the struggle for independence resulted in an open conflict, Wright’s business declined sharply. Left without a job in 1780, she went to Paris, hoping to open a new wax studio. By making a bust of Franklin, she tried to find a way to Parisian society, but failed. In 1782, she returned to London and began writing to American leaders, including G. Washington and Th. Jefferson, for permission to make their models. By 1785, she decided to return to New Jersey. However, when preparing for the departure, she fell and broke her leg. A week later, on March 23, 1786, she died. Her sister Rachel was trying to get financial assistance from prominent Americans and the Continental Congress to pay for her burial, but to no avail. Ultimately, P. Wright was buried in London, and her place of burial is unknown now.
The history of formation of the new scientific discipline – women’ and gender studies in Russian science of the past – is represented in the article through the prism of creation of the united information and search resource – a database “Women’ and Gender History of Russia, 1800-2010”. The authors focus the attention on the absence of such nationwide catalogues and bibliographies, on the complexity of the information collectioning and its generalization, as well as on the methods of ensuring the gathered information in the tags and keywords. At the same time the article encourages to join to the network of the researchers who study the past through the aspect of gender, talks about the role that “The Russian Association of Women’ History Researchers” played in the development of the “new social history” – with the ascent on the history from the individuals till the large social groups.
This article is about one of the most radical sects of independents — quakers. The English Govenment considered quakers to be a danger to the state and began to persecute them. As a result a lot of quakers went to the North America and founded their own colony there.