Глаз ума: понятия ментальных образов и воображения от Беркли до современной когнитивной науки
The article describes the multilingualism of the austrian writer V. Vertlib as the source of his literary creativity.
The article concerns R. Wollheim’s theory of twofoldness, the one of the most acclaimed analytical theories of pictorial representation. Wohhleim has pointed to the structural distinction of seeing pictures from seeing objects and situations face-to-face, thus proposing the theory of seeing-in and twofoldness. This conception presupposes the split, simultaneous seeing of the picture’s object and material surface. Considering the basic influences, features and shortcomings of Wollheim’s theory, author specifies the question of to what extent the scope of this theory is limited to artistic pictures. Alongside with this theory’s reconstruction and critique, the article provides its interpretation based on spatially-oriented definitions of twofoldness (B. Nanay, J. Kulvicki) coupled with the actualization of the distinction between representational content of a picture and its figurative content. The first one includes all spatial relations that can be seen in it, the second one – all that can be seen in it and described by non-abstract concepts. Wollheim reframed to apply this distinction to his notion on twofoldness. But it gives the possibility to bring out the convincing definition of twofoldness as the simultaneous visual experience of pictorial surface (i.e., some material object in viewer’s egocentric space) and of representational content (i.e., semantically active spatial relations which one sees in the picture). This interpretation may be considered a useful instrument for non-reductionist description of pictorial experience and pictures’ ontological duality, hence it is devoid of Wollheim’s psychologism while maintaining his focus on visuality. Moreover, it provides some opportunities for applying Wollheim’s theory beyond the contexts of analytical philosophy of pictures, thus connecting it to the problems of phenomenological and hermeneutic theories of image.
The article contains a review of the evolution of style and genres of mass literature as products of mass consumption. We identify two concurrent trends in the development of contemporary mass literature. First, there is a growing integration of the various genres of popular literature. Second, there is differentiation, accentuating a unique and original personality of the author. A stylistic platform for both tendencies is the genre of fantasy. This genre is close to a social mythology, and is able to deliver a non-trivial content of branding (narratives, themes and plots, legends, striking names).Thus, fantasy provides opportunities to effectively integrate the popular literature with artifacts and technologies of other cultural industries in particular, and economy of consumer society in general.
Plato’s interest in vision and the visual is multifaceted, and complex. Visual words and images are frequent in the dialogues along with many direct and indirect discussions of physiological, intellectual, and social vision. The increased emphasis in recent scholarship on the importance of visuality in Plato is a part of a ‘scopic turn,’ the effect of which was to ground interpretations of the history of western European philosophy and metaphysics in its entirety in certain optical premises.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.