Гражданское образование - путь к демократическому обществу: Материалы международной конференции
Modern Russian history of community development, The nature of our TOSs is voluntary activities on a local level and initiatives inspired by local residents a transformation in the relationships between TOSs and local authorities. This includes moving from conflicts, lack of understanding and lack of support, to invitations to deliberate, share information, and the inclusion of representatives of TOSs in different municipal commissions and the working groups. Now the state tolerates, needs, and encourages community work in many ways, Our new and very important task is the expansion of formal education to address community issues, and the creation of a new specialty of community organizer. This will be similar to the Western Bachelor of Arts in Community Development with new competences (capacity to listen, explain, and help people to learn about and deal with local issues) and new skills (proposal writing, fundraising, crowdfunding, participatory methods of working with local constituents, and collaboration with local authorities on tasks such as participation in decision-making, negotiations, conflict resolution, and moderation). This education is for community leaders and activists,.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.