Модель повышения квалификации и профессиональной переподготовки специалистов, осуществляющих функции по надзору и контролю в сфере образования
How do firms decide between different strategies for acquiring highly skilled workers? Existing theory on firms’ training strategies is premised on the ability of firms to solve a fundamental commitment problem, which retards cooperation between firms and other actors. Only with a strong civil society – employers’ associations and labor unions –or free, transparent and efficient market mechanisms is cooperation possible. Contemporary Russia presents a puzzle to this work. On the one hand, firms increasingly make costly co-investments with state-run schools and outsource training to private third-parties. On the other hand, civil society and judicial institutions are weak in Russia, making it difficult for firms to punish counterparties, at the same time that its markets have failed to fully make the transition to free and transparent capitalism. This paper argues that absent strong civil society and free, transparent markets, firms can overcome commitment problems and work with third-parties so long as their regional governments have strong state capacity and are politically accountable. The former assures firms that central, regional authorities can monitor school officials and private-third parties to ensure agreements are honored, while the latter creates incentives for regional authorities to do so. These theories are tested on original survey data covering 690 firms in 12 Russian regions.
Continuing professional development and participation in lifelong learning are not only important, but necessary conditions of successful engineering career. The need for skill upgrade occurs due to the inadequate level of competence received by engineers during university studies, and due to the rapid technological development and socio-economic transformations. Successful participation in continuing education requires not only cognitive abilities, but also self-interest, awareness of the importance of advanced training. The data of the specialized survey (n=880) were analyzed to investigate the level of involvement of young Russian engineers (up to 40 years) in obtaining additional professional education, as well as the relevance of various formats of advanced training and the most common educational strategies. Data on engineers are supplemented with information about the perceptions of potential employers (90 organizations in the field of robotics). Most young engineers feel some skills shortage and the need for additional training. The employers’ opinion confirms the existence of discrepancies between the existing and required level of engineering competencies and the high importance of further training. However, the active participation in lifelong learning is currently common not for all Russian engineers: a third of them (32.7 %) have not received additional education in the past three years. Additional training aimed at obtaining managerial skills, as well as the format of internships are currently not widespread. Those engineers who already feel the lack of professional knowledge and consciously participate in advanced training, strive not only to upgrade their field-specific competencies, but also to improve their digital and language skills. Obtaining a doctorate degree as a tool for career advancement was considered by every fifth (21.7 %) young engineer; the interest in obtaining a degree decreases with aging.
Modular Program «Integral»: How To Fill Professional Deficits?
Abstract: The practice of introducing the modular program «Integral». Integral is an example of flexible adjustment of the advanced training system to eliminate professional deficiencies of teachers. The INTEGRAL system was developed and tested in the advanced training system in St. Petersburg.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.