Философия сознания Мераба Мамардашвили
This work is a methodological and introspective look at one of the most unique figures in Russian philosophy. Often regarded as the Russian Socrates, Merab Mamardashvili was known for his lectures focusing on consciousness as a state, and as a condition relating to existence. Through his lectures Merab was able to contribute greatly to the field of philosophy; however, his preference for this conversational style meant that few works made it into print. Diana Gasparyan's efforts in Merab Mamardashvili's Philosophy of Consciousness aim not only to bring the thoughts and work of Mr. Mamardashvili to a new audience by translating them into English, but also to offer personal insights gained through a series of discussions amongst peers in the field of Philosophy, at institutions of higher learning in Russia and the United States. This work is a unique opportunity to explore the genius of Mamardashvili through the eyes of a contemporary.
This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.