XI международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества: В 3 кн. Кн. 1.
Local government reform has changed the administrative-territorial structure of the country. Revolutionary change was noticed neither nationals nor the state. The reform of local government came a new reality. Must be closely monitored and the study of this new reality. Need to send a description of the already existing diversity of social, economic and territorial forms of social organization. Our lives can not squeeze into the norms of the existing laws. We certainly seem inadequate attempts to develop a standardized system of local government by the capital experts. They know about the local government only that it is somewhere abroad. There can not be a uniform system of local government for the vast country. we should not neglect the geographical, ethnic, political, cultural and economic diversity of life in the towns and villages of the Russian Federation.
After the collapse of the crawling peg exchange rate regimes during the Emerging markets crisis in the late 90's, the so-called «hollowing out of the middle ground» view of exchange rate regimes gained ground. For example, Fischer (2001) argued that intermediate exchange rate regimes are crisis-prone and not viable over long periods of time. In accordance with this intellectual trend, a number of countries (Brazil, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines and Turkey) de jure adopted floating exchange rate policies. Nevertheless, Calvo and Reinhart (2002) have pointed out that the central banks of these countries often de facto manage their exchange rates and accumulate a large «war chest» of foreign currency reserves, a phenomenon they call «fear of floating».
We prove that, for a spatial voting setting with convex preferences, the locally uncovered set, proposed by Schofield (1999), is closely related to the dimension-bydimension median of Shepsle (1979). It is shown that every point in the interior of the locally uncovered set can be supported as a dimension-by-dimension median by some set of basis vectors for the space of alternatives. Moreover, for a two-dimensional policy space, the locally uncovered set and the set of dimension-by-dimension medians coincide. We also introduce a measure that allows to differentiate locally uncovered alternatives and chose the best one.
Each developing country tries to catch up with the developed world. Unfortunately, only few economies were able to reach this purpose during last sixty years. Well-known Gershenkonђs argument - «advantage of backwardness» - does not work properly in most cases [Gershenkon, 1962]. Though imitations of technologies and governance methods are much cheaper than innovations, the imitation process is also costly and requires sophisticated approaches of choosing and harmonizing different kinds of economic policies.