Марк Туллий Цицерон. Антология гуманной педагогики
This article expanded on the essence of Cicero’s humane pedagogy. The article consists of four parts: the introduction focuses on pedagogical connotation of the "humanitas" concept and connection of this term to the Greek "ϕιλανθρωπία" and "παιδεία" found in Cicero, the following two parts are devoted to Cicero’s own analysis of the features of "humanitas" as regards the process and result of education and the concluding part emphasizes the point that Cicero himself used the word "humanitas" to describe an education-based life practice of an individual.
In the first book of Tusculanae Disputationes Cicero examines in a form of a dialogue between two unknown persons different attitudes towards the death. A considerable part of the dialogue is devoted to the study and the refutation of the belief that human souls after death do not have any form of existence. Cicero suggests his own interpretation of the Platonic theory of a soul. He proves that the death could be a blessing for a human being and that the soul is immortal. He also speaks about the celestial ascent of the soul. Apparently, these beliefs were based on the Platonic version of Stoicism provided by Posidonius. Cicero tries to produce a convincing evidence of the immortality of the soul, basing on the philosophical positions, but not religious. The authority of philosophy remains one of the main arguments for him.
The article examines the origin of the philosophical myth of the cave cited in Cicero’s dialogue De natura deorum (2.95–96) and attempts to interpret this text. Cicero argues that the author of the myth is Aristotle, but does not mention the title of the work containing it. It is generally believed that the myth of the cave was articulated in Aristotle’s lost dialogue Περὶ φιλοσοφίας, but the absence of any hints at the image of the cave, both in Aristotle’s own surviving texts and in those of his commentators, raises questions about the appropriate attribution of this fragment. Regardless of the way that these issues are to be resolved, the very content of the fragment deserves attention, since it reflects in nuce the Platonic and Aristotelian doctrine of knowledge, world and divinity refracted through the optics of Cicero’s eclecticism. This article attempts to show 1) that there are a number of correspondences (semantic and factual) between some texts of Corpus Aristotelicum and this fragment, which allow us to accept the hypothesis of the Aristotelian “cave myth” as plausible, 2) that a number of details in the Aristotelian myth deliberately follow in the footsteps of the Platonic myth of the cave — which serves a polemical purpose, which, in turn, supports 3) that the Aristotelian myth is a reflection of his teachings during the Academia period.
The heritage of the ancient Roman politician, orator and thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC – 43 BC), is considered as a set of texts that over centuries have been included in the curricula for humanities students, significantly changing the narrative tradition and detecting a way of understanding what is related to humanities. The key questions for the authors is the following: how and for what purposes was Cicero’s heritage presented to humanities students in educational texts in the first two decades of the 20th and 21st centuries? At the beginning of last century, scholars’ attention to Cicero was largely due to Augustus Samuel Wilkins (1843–1905), Paul Monroe (1869–1947) and his disciple Ellwood Cubberley (1868-1941). Many textbooks compiled by P. Monroe, A.S. Wilkins and E. Cubberley were published one after another. Thanks to the educational books of P. Monroe, A.S. Wilkins and E. Cubberley, different approaches to presenting Cicero's works for educational purposes were developed. It is these approaches that were reflected in educational books for humanists a century later. In Russian textbooks, sourcebooks, and anthologies on history of pedagogy, Cicero was mostly a figure of omission not only in the first decades, but throughout the entire 20th century. At the beginning of the 21st century, many learning books for humanities students appeared. Their authors and compilers consider Cicero as an author who left a conceptual description of pedagogical reality (a detailed description of educational process) and chose a narrative description (description of what happened through the eyes of those who take part in it). We have to regret that the Russian domestic tradition of including Cicero's heritage in the content of humanitarian education has hardly undergone any changes over a century: fragments of his works continue to be presented on a small scale, are practically not grouped according to key issues, and rarely accompanied by pedagogical commentaries. The question of why some texts were selected while others were not, can be asked to every author and compiler who included Cicero's texts in their books for humanities students. The search for answers to this “eternal question” can be associated both with the flexibility of the humanitarian curriculum, and with the personal preferences of the authors and compilers of learning books.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.