Трансцендентальная перспектива философствования: история и метод
The article reconstructs the understanding of Kant’s political theory from the standpoint of neo-republicanism of P. Pettit. Based on selected texts, the field of historical philosophical analysis is created, which allows to develop an understanding of the significance of Kant’s heritage for contemporary normative theory. The grounds are traced for Pettit’s distinction of the Italian-Atlantic and Franco-German types of republicanism. Kant’s texts are analyzed on three points: an understanding of the freedom, government and contestability of politics. It becomes possible to compare Pettit’s theses and relevant fragments of Kant’s works. As a result, the rejection of the idea of mixed constitution in favor of a representative sovereign and the narrowing of the possibilities of contesting politics are recognized as fundamental features of Kant’s Franco-German republicanism highlighted by Pettit. In addition, the analysis of the polemical thesis of R. Forst about the need to consider justice as a constitutive political category through the perspective of Kantian understanding of autonomous will is involved. A joint examination of the texts of Kant, Boden, Hobbes and Rousseau, on the one hand, and a comparison of Forst’s thesis with the concept of orthonomy of Pettit and Smith, on the other, are indicated as possible ways to further elaboration of the question of Kant’s significance for modern republicanism and political theory as a whole.
The article compares two philosophical traditions of I. Bentam and I. Kant. Comparative characteristics of these approaches clearly demonstrate what reap only the modern Homo Sapiens and how far they are from the “categorical imperative”. On the whole, Postmodern tear away the idea of the Enlightenment, which because of the excessive spread of the progress placed a man in the modern Panopticon, means to achieve the common good.
The article is devoted to the problem of emancipation of women framed by the correspondence between originator of positivism Auguste Comte and originator of utilitarianism John Mill. There is no Mill’s letters retained, thus, his other works about women’s question were used. This paper is mainly historico-philosophical; its basic task is a research of the women’s question in terms of utilitarianism and positivism. The goal of this article is to find out is there any dependency on the doctrine of utilitarianism (as well as the doctrine of positivism) and the particular attitude toward women’s question.
Actuality of the problem is in the ongoing antagonism among men and women, which is linked, it seems, to the slow absorption of the idea of gender equality in various countries. Nowadays, when this theme has become one of the most speculative, — along with racism, homophobia, and so on, certainly, — it is essential to turn to the roots of this problem sometimes.
It could give us some answers to the most important challenges of the day.
This article deals with the concept of love in Schellings novel "Clara".