ПРАВОВЫЕ ОСНОВЫ ПРИРОДОПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ И ОХРАНЫ ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЫ 3-е изд., пер. и доп. Учебник и практикум для академического бакалавриата
The present edition represents the scientifically-practical comment to the Federal act «About precious metals and jewels» (further - the Law). From the moment of the introduction of the Law into force has passed more than ten years. For this period changes have been made, accepted or the subordinate legislation specifying and supplementing sphere of action of the present Law has changed. The comment is constituted taking into account last changes and additions, and also the normative acts published after an adoption of law.
Considering traditional closeness and specificity of branch, authors have considered necessary for more complete understanding of the mentioned questions to supply separate articles of the comment with the allocated blocks in which short historical digression or the information inquiry contains.
The book is relevant for undergraduate and postgraduate students, professors, research and practising lawyers and those who are interested in the theory and practice of the legislation in sphere of precious metals and jewels.
In Soviet period absence of market prices led to extremely inefficient land use and spatial development of cities. Centralized planning system was not flexible and responsive to changing demand, preoccupied with minimization of construction costs and characterized by very low density of land use. In 20 years after the beginning of market economic reforms and mass privatization of real property the situation in land use and spatial development of Russian cities didn’t change much. Main reasons of this are: unclear, non-specified and often not registered property rights; quasi-monopoly of the state on urban lands; absence of clear distinction between federal, regional and municipal lands; high transaction costs and administrative barriers for developers; still very much administrative approach to planning and land use regulation, absence of real dialog with community development groups and NGOs. In this legal and institutional environment regional and/or local authorities often act in interests of big and influential investors and developers, scarifying interests of community as well as of small private owners and tenants. As a result we can see a further worsening of the urban environment, decreasing of green areas, disappearance of historical character of whole parts of city centers, sprawl developments in suburbia etc.
To measure transaction costs and administrative risks in urban development and construction, a survey of developers, builders and real estate agents was undertaken in St Petersburg and Leningrad region, the results of which are presented in the paper.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/