Наука. Технологии. Инновации: 2019 : краткий статистический сборник
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T, innovation and information society in the Russian Federation.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
This paper reviews extant research on technological catch-up of East Asian firms, which has recently emerged as an important issue. We review 76 articles on technological catch-up in the East Asian context published in 17 journals over 23 years (1995–2017), covering the academic disciplines of strategic management, international business, entrepreneurship, technology and innovation management, and economics. Based on a systematic analysis of this literature, we develop an overarching framework to this topic. We then identify the major gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research on technological catch-up of Asian firms.
M&A on expenses R&D the method the difference of differences (DID – Difference-in-Difference) which founder Meyer B is considered is applied to assessment of the impact of transactions. . The ideas of this method comparison of the companies with various characteristics of expenses R&D before and after the transaction M&A lies. However, at simple comparison of these characteristics will not give effective impact assessments M&A. To avoid influence of other factors on change of expenses R&D, such as economic instability in the country, world shocks of supply and demand and others, besides the main group of the observed companies, to be entered control group. Each company from the main group the company analog from control group is selected so that the company of an analog had no transactions during the period in which the company had a transaction from the main group. Thus, the DID method compares a difference of results of the acquisitions and no acquisitions firms before acquisition. For this method it is necessary to prove the choice of control group – the companies which did not undergo acquisition process. The trial and error method of control group on index of coincidence (PSM – Propensity Score Matching) [by The Central role …, was for this purpose applied 1983 Rosenbaum P.]. Selection on the basis of mark assessment allows to define control group which on the main characteristics would not differ from group of the acquainted firms
This year, the Science and Technology Indicators (STI) conference is held in Leiden, the Netherlands, in collaboration with the European Network of Indicators Developers (ENID). The conference takes place in a period of historic transformations to the scientific and scholarly system. The conference motto “Context Counts – Pathways to Master Big and Little Data” aptly captures some of the most important changes. First, we are witnessing the rise of new paradigms with respect to the economic and societal role of research. This is for example visible in the emphasis on societal relevance, the policy speak about Grand Challenges in Europe and the US, and the practices of new (and older) generations of researchers who try to combine breakthrough fundamental work with contributions to the solution of urgent problems. Although blue-sky research will remain crucial for scientific and scholarly progress, the new generations of researchers will work in a very different context from the generation that came out of World War II. Second, the cumulative creation of data-generating machines and scientific instruments has led to a flood of data -- all challenging, not all meaningful. This data flood also has ramifications for our own field. With the shift towards web-based and computer-supported work in virtually all disciplines, the traces researchers leave in their daily work can increasingly be turned into data and indicators. In addition, social media are creating more (pressure on) the communicative activities of researchers, as exemplified by the rising subfield of altmetrics. Combined, the changing economic and societal role of research and the increasing availability of digital information lead to a rising demand for scientometric expertise. The present hunger for data and for indicators also lays bare a need for a meaningful interpretation. Scientometricians can no longer merely be data providers or indicator builders. They need to be able to put the data in the right context. And increasingly, they will also need to selfcritically examine the use of their own products by the scientific and scholarly communities at large. Indeed, context counts – in more than one way. For the STI-ENID 2014 conference 125 papers were submitted. We accepted 70 oral presentations and 30 posters. Along with the regular indicators topics, the two trends discussed above are well represented in various sessions and in the 5 special events we scheduled on top of the regular program. We are grateful to all authors for submitting their papers, posters and special events as well as to all members of the scientific committee for reviewing them. We also wish to thank Suze van der Luijt for producing and editing this book of proceedings. Paul Wouters (Conference chair) Ed Noyons (Editor)
This book provides a timely overview of the impacts of digitalization from the perspective of everyday life, and argues that one central issue in digitalization is the development of new types of services that digitalization enables, but which are often overlooked due to the focus on new technologies and devices. The book summarizes the past 20 years of research into the relationship between information and communications technology (ICT) and service innovation, and reveals that the ongoing digitalization is a qualitatively different phenomenon and represents a true paradigm shift. The all-encompassing integration and distribution of data raises critical issues such as preserving human dignity and individual autonomy; moreover, interaction practices that foster broad participation, trust, learning, and a willingness to share knowledge are called for. Citizen empowerment and multi-actor co-creation have become central to using digitalization to support the development of wellbeing and sustainability. Further, the book shows how employees and professionals can and should be involved in designing their future work, and in evaluating it. Proactiveness and participation in innovation endeavours are ways to guarantee meaningful work in an age of socio-technical transition. The book employs a variety of theoretical approaches and perspectives from diverse disciplines to illustrate these needs. In addition to theoretical analyses, some specific application areas are examined, e.g. services in health and social care, and problems linked to robots in elderly care. Given its scope, the book is highly recommended to all readers seeking an overview of the current understanding of the human side of digitalization and searching for concrete cases from different countries to illustrate the topic.
The article provides a study of approaches for evaluation of the universities’ research and development performance. The study includes approaches applicable to any type of R&D institutions as well as university-specific ones. Classifications of university-specific approaches are provided. The terminology issues are highlighted as causing the major diversity of performance evaluation methodologies. The article gives a particular example of qualitative R&D performance evaluation methodology.
The career paths of Russian doctorates are explored based on three types of mobility: inter-sectoral, intra-sectoral and international mobility. The project focuses on two major interlinked issues: 1) mobility and internationalization, 2) skills and motivations for research career.
The career trajectories of doctoral holders are addressed in terms of career employment and effects on productivity (publications, patents, salary). This analysis is complemented by a second major issue, which aims to understand the role of motivations, experiences, professional shifts and other social phenomena in decision-making processes concerning career paths, and the decisions of opting for one type of mobility over the other, when mobile.
The study of Russian doctorate holders confirmed the main trend of modern R&D system, namely the intensification of international contacts and cooperation at all levels: individual, institutional and intergovernmental. The second major issue aims to understand the role of motivations, experiences, professional shifts and other social phenomena in decision-making processes concerning career paths, and the decisions of opting for one type of mobility over the other, when mobile.
It is substantiated that creativity is a key competence in the transition from a commodity to an innovative economy. It is shown that intellectual property (IP) becomes the basis of the capitalization of creative potential. It is concluded that Russia's regions are not involved in the commercialization of IP rights. Breaking down barriers and dampening negative trends requires legal support and the advance of IP training programmes at regional universities.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.